Lower Limb, and Pathology Flashcards Preview

Orthopaedics > Lower Limb, and Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Limb, and Pathology Deck (22):
0

What does the gastrocnemius do?

Plantar flexes the ankle when the knee is extended
Raises the heel during walking
Flexes the leg at the knee

1

Which muscles make up the deep layer of muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg?
How are they innervated?

Popliteus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior
Tibial division of the sciatic nerve

2

What does the soleus do?

Plantar flexes the ankle independent of the position of the knee
Steadies the leg on the foot

3

What does the plantaris do?

It weakly assists the gastrocnemius in plantar flexing the ankle

4

What does the popliteus do?
How is it innervated?

Weakly flexes the knee
Unlocks the knee rotating the femur on the fixed tibia
Medially rotates the tibia of an unplanted limb
Tibial division of the sciatic nerve

5

What does the flexor hallucis longus do?

Flexes the great toe at all joints
Weakly plantar flexes the ankle
Supports the medial longitudinal arch of the foot

6

What does the flexor digitorum longus do?

Flexes the lateral four digits
Plantar flexes the ankle
Supports the longitudinal arches of the foot

7

What does the tibialis posterior do?

Plantarflexes the ankle
Inverts the foot

8

Which artery provides the blood supply to the posterior compartment of the leg and to the foot?

Posterior tibial artery
Palpate posterior to the medial malleous

9

Which muscles make up the superficial layer of muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg?
How are they innervated?

Gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris
Tibial division of the sciatic nerve

10

What are the key features of Achilles tendinopathy?

Mid-tendon - chronic dull ache, worse with activity, worse with dorsiflexion, early morning stiffness, gradual onset

Crepitus along the mid-portion of the Achilles' tendon, thickened tendons
Worse when asking the patient to hop

If acute pain on top - consider tear or rupture

11

What are the features and management of Achilles' tendon rupture?

Acute tearing pain usual on top of chronic pain of tendinopathy
Positive Simmond's sqeeuze test
Weakness of plantar flexion on the affected side

Refer to on call orthopaedic team

12

What are the management options in Achilles tendinopathy?

Simple analgesia
Reduction in precipitating activities
Strengthening exercises
Consider physio referral
If persistent 3-6/12 refer

13

What are the contents of the tarsal tunnel?

Tom, Dick And Very Nervous Harry
Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum longus
Posterior tibial artery
Posterior tibial vein
Tibial nerve
Flexor hallucis longus

14

What are the two muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg?

How are they innervated?

What are their actions?

Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis

Superficial fibular nerve

Weakly plantar flexes the ankle
Eversion of the foot

15

What is the blood supply to the lateral compartment of the leg?

It receives a blood supply by perforating vessels off the anterior tibial artery and off the fibular artery

16

What does the extensor digitorum longus do?

What is the innervation?

Extends the lateral four digits
Dorsi flexion at the ankle

Deep fibular nerve

17

What does the tibialis anterior do?

What is the innervation?

Dorsi flexion at the ankle
Inverts the foot
Helps support the medial arch

Innervated by the deep fibular nerve

18

What does the extensor hallucis longus do?

What is the innervation?

Extends the great toe
Dorsi flexion at the ankle

Deep fibular nerve

19

What does the fibularis tertius do?

What is the innervation?

Dorsi flexion at the ankle
Eversion of the foot

Deep fibular nerve

20

What is the blood supply to the anterior compartment of the leg?

Anterior tibial artery

21

What is the cutaneous innervation to the lower leg?

Saphenous nerve - medial
Sural nerve - lateral