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Flashcards in Lower Limb Bones Deck (82):
1

The four bones of the lower limbs include

Pelvic girdle
Femur
Tibia
Fibula

2

What is the longest and heaviest bone of the body

Femur

3

What is a sesamoid bone

A bone that lies in a tendon and moves the tendon

4

What is the difference b/w Tib and fib vs ulna and radius?

Both have interosseous membrane, however tib and fib do NOT move in relation to each other.

5

What is the difference b/w the pelvic girdle and pectoral girdle

Pelvic girdle is much more rigid and stable

6

What is the difference b/w male and female pelvic girdles>

Male --> narrow and higher
Female --> wider but shorter

7

What is the pelvic girdle formed by posteriorly

Sacrum, coccyx

8

What is the pelvic girdle formed by anteriorly

Pair of hipbones

9

What are the hipbones comprised of

3 independent bones --> Ileum, ischium and pubis
Fuse during development

10

What muscles attach to the ischium

Hamstring muscles

11

What muscles attach to pubis bone

Adductor muscles

12

What muscles attach to ileum

Gluteal muscles

13

What is the acetabulum

Notch within the hipbone where the femur articulates

14

What type of bone is femur

Long bone

15

What are the features of a femur bone

Head
Neck
Shaft
Tronchanters
Articular condyles

16

What articulates with the articular condyles

Patella

17

What injury is the femur susceptible to

Fractured hip
Due to an area of weakness with little trabechulae

18

Trabechulae

bony spicules in cancellous bone which form a meshwork of intercommunicating spaces that are filled with bone marrow
--> Strengthens bone

19

Which is the weight bearing bone - tibia or fibula

Tibia

20

What is a malleolus and which bones form them?

bony prominence on each side of the ankle formed by tibia and fibula

21

What is the medial malleolus formed by and where is it found

Tibia --> inner side of ankle

22

What is the lateral mallelous formed by

Fibula --> outer side of the ankle

23

Intercondyloid eminence

Structure of the tibea and are important knee joint stabilisers

24

Which are more solid - tarsal or carpal bones

Tarsal bones

25

What are the bones of the ankle and foot

Tarsal
Metatarsals
Phalange
+ sesamoid bones on the sole

26

Talus

Tarsal bone that forms part of the ankle joint with which tib and fib articulate

27

Calcaneous

Heel bone found below talus bone --> nb for muscle attachment

28

Through which joint do talus and calcaneous articulate?

Subtalar joint

29

Describe line of gravity

Passes behind hip joint
Anterior to knee
V. anterior to ankle

30

Three joint of the pelvic girdle

Sacroiliac
Sacrococcygeal
Pubic symphis

31

Describe sacroiliac joint

Pelvic girdle joint
Synovial
Stable
NO movement (until pregnant)

32

Describe sacrococcygeal joint

Pelvic girdle joint
Stable
Supported by ligaments

33

Describe pubic symphis joint

Pelvic girdle joint
Cartilagenous

34

What type of joint is the hip joint

Ball and stocket

35

What is the hip joint deppened by

Labrum --> lip = fibrocartilage

36

How many planes does the hip joint move in

3

37

What bones are involved in the hip joint

Femur into the acetabulum of hip bone

38

What surrounds the ball and socket hip joint

Joint capsules with ligament

39

What is the anterior ligament that runs by the joint capsule

Ileofemoral ligament

40

Ileofemoral ligament

Anterior ligement of hip joint
Spirals and tightens with hip

41

When does the hip joint have max. stability

extension --> ileofemoral ligament is extended and tight!

42

What type of joint is the knee joint?

Modified hinge joint with 2 synovial joints in ONE capsule

43

What are the two synovial joints in the knee joint capsule

Tibiofemoral joint
Patellofemoral joint

44

Tibiofemoral joint

One of the two joints in the knee capsule.
Joins the femure with tibia
It is the major articulation

45

Patellofemoral joint

One of the two joints in the knee capsule
Joins femur with patella

46

The patella ligament

Reinforces the knee joint anteriorly

47

Describe the knee joint support

It has a wide range of movements therefore needs a lot of ligament support

48

What are the three knee ligaments

Cruciate
Collateral
Menisci

49

What are the two cruciate ligaments

Anterial and posterial cruciate ligament

50

What are the two colateral ligaments

Part of knee joint
Medical col. lig
Lat col. lig

51

What are the two menisci of the knee joint

Medial
Lateral

52

Are the cruciate ligaemtns intra/extra capsule?
Are they intra/extra synovial?

Intracap
Extrasynov

53

Are the collateral ligaments of the knee extra or intra cap and are the intra/extra synovial

Extracap
- extra synov (since not in cap)

54

What is the role of ACL

Stops tibia slipping forward

55

What is the role of PCL

Stops tibia slipping backward

56

Does the ACL head post or ant?

Post

57

Does the PCL head post or ant

Ant

58

What is the difference between MCL and LCL

MCL = flat band & and is attached to the joint capsule and medial meniscus
LCL = round and narrow and is attached to the head of fibula

59

What is the difference between the medial and lateral menisci of the knee?

Medial = larger and longer
Lateral = rounder and shorter

60

Describe the structure of the knee menisci

Fibrocart disc
Wedge shaped

61

What is the purpose of the med and lat. menisci

Absorb contact force
Shock absorb
Spread synovial fluid

62

What is a bursa

Double fold of serous membrane with a SMALL amount of fluid

63

Where are bursa found

Places with potential friction

64

What is the suprapatella bursa

fluid-filled sac that is located above the kneecap

65

What is the suprapatella prone to?

Can get infected and swell

66

What is the unhappy triad

an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and the meniscus

67

Are the tibiofibular joints stable or unstable

VERY stable

68

What are the two tibiofibular joints?

Superior
Inferior

69

What are the differences between the tibfib sup and inf joints

Sup joint = plane synovial and allows gliding movement
Inf joint = fibrous syndesmosis and prevents tib and fib from seperating

70

What other joint does the inferiour tibfib joint house?

The ankle joint! :)

71

What type of joint is the ankle joint

Hing joint

72

What movement does the ankle joint allow

Plantar flex
Dorsi flex

73

What three joints does the ankle joint include?

talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the Inferior tibiofibular joint.

74

What two ligaments support the ankle joint

Medial and lateral

75

Describe the medial ankle joint ligament

Collection of 4 ligaments
Also called the deltoid ligament
V. strong

76

Describe the lateral ankle joint ligament

Not as strong os medial
Most injuries occur here

77

Where do most injuries occur - lat or med ankle joint lig?

Lat

78

What type of shape is the ankle joint

Triangular

79

What movement does the ankle joint RESIST

Side-side movement

80

Mortisse

rectangular socket
Where tallus slots in between two malleoli

81

What are the lower limb planes of movement

Ext/flex
Abd/add
Int/ ext rotation
Knee flex/ext
Dorsi flex/ plantar flex
inversion/eversion - foot

82

Fascia

Fibrous tissue
Encases muscle
Divides muscles into compartments that do the same action
Allow muscles to glide