Flashcards in Lower Limb Muscles Deck (88):
Psoas major and iliacus muscles at their inferior cross over the pelvic girdle
They are hip flexors
What are the gluteal muscles
Gluteus Max and med and min
Where are gluteus med and min found?
How do glut max and min differ?
Max - power extension
Med and min - abduct the hip, maintain position of pelvis during motion .
They are lateral - going up
What are the four muscle compartments of the thigh
What movement do the anterior thigh muscles do
Hip flexors and knee extensors
What movement do the posterior thigh muscles do
Hip extension and knee flexors
What movement do the medial thigh muscles do
What muscles compose the anterior thigh muscles?
Which muscle maintains the allignment of the patella
What happens when vastus medialis is weak?
Abnormal tracking of patella
lateral patella dislocation
What is the posterior compartment of thigh muscles commonly known as?
What muscles compose the posterior compartment of the thigh muscles?
Where do the posterior compartment thigh muscles attach to
What are the posterior compartment muscles susceptible to?
Likely to tare since they cross 2 joints
Inflamation of muscle insertion
What are the medial compartment thigh muscles composed of
What nerve supplies the medial thigh compartment
Where is the medial thigh compartment located?
What are the three compartments of the lower leg?
Anterior, lateral and posterior
What movement do the anterior muscles of the lower leg provide
Dorsi-flexors of ankles and toes
What movement do the superficial and deep posterior muscles of the lower leg provide
Superficial -> plantar-flexors of ankles and toes
Deep -> dorsi flexors
What movement do the lateral muscles of the lower leg provide?
What occurs when you over use the anterior muscles of the lower leg?
Sin splints = tenoperiostosis
What are the three muscles of the anterior lower leg compartment?
Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
What is a feature of the anterior compartment of lower leg muscles?
Deep fascia = very strong
Across hip? Yes
Across knee? No
Main action? Power Extension
Across hip? yes
Across knee? Yes
Main action? Flex and extension hip
Adductor mag nus
Across hip? yes
Across knee? yes
Main action? adductor
Across hip? Yes - only rectus femoris
Across knee? Yes - pattela tendon
Main action? extensor
Across hip? Yes - ischeal tuberosity
Across knee? Yes
Main action? Hip exstensors and knee flexors
Across hip? No
Across knee? Yes & ankle
Main action? Plantar flex
Tensor Fascia Latae
Across hip? Yes
Across knee? No
Main action? Stabilise knee in extension
The lateral lower leg muscle compartment includes
Fibularis muscles - longus and brevis
What is the role of the lower leg muscle compartment?
Not very powerful - they are everters
They are very sensitive to position
What is the role of the posterior compartment of muscles in the lower leg?
Generate the force when walking
What are the two layers of post. comp. lower leg muscles?
Superficial and deep
What muscles are included in the superficial post. lower leg comp?
Crosses knee and ankle
Small and vestigial
Found under Gastrocnemius
Where do gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus combine>
Distally in the achilles tendon
What muscles make up the deep layer of post. compartment of lower leg>
Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor digitorum longus
What is the role of flexor hallucis longus
Big toe flexor
What is the role of flexor digitroium longus
Major supplier of the thigh
Largest branch of the fem. artery and gies off cercumflex vessels
Posterior artery and courses deep
gives off branches around the neck of the femur
Describe the pathway of the aorta in relation to the leg
Aorta --> L and R ileac arteries --> interior ileac art --> external ileac art --> femoral art -->popilteal arteries --> anter and post --> tibeal arts
What nerve supplies the anterior compartment of muscles?
What are the superficial veins of the legs?
Dorsal venous arches
Where are the dorsal venous arches found
On top of the foot
Where is the great saphenous vein found
Where is the small saphenous vein found
Laterally superficial But penetrates deeply
venae comitantes are
a pair of veins, but occasionally more, that closely accompany an artery in such a manner that the pulsations of the artery aid venous return.
Have incompitant valves so blood flows up and down
Saphenous vein grafts
Use bits of the saphenous vein to graft around the heard
Where are the lymphatic vessels found
Follow superficial veins
Where do the lower limb lymphatics drain to
BOTH drain to inguinal nodes
Where does the inguinal nodes drain to
LEFT hand side thoracic duct only
What plexus do the major nerves of the lower limbs arise from?
Describe the lumbar plexus
Describe the sacral plexus
In the pelvic cavity posteriouly
S1-S3 anter. rami and L4 + L5
Describe the femoral nerve
L2, L3, L4
Anterior compartment of thigh
Passes UNDER inguinal lig
What is the terminal cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve?
Is the femoral nerve injured a lot>
What does the femoral nerve supply?
Quads and skin above them
Does the obturator nerve pass through the pelvis?
Where does the obturator nerve give referred pain to?
Describe the obturator nerve
l2, l3, l4
Medial comp. of thigh --> adductor muscles
What is the thickest nerve of the body
What nerve supplies most of the thigh?
What two branches does the sciatic nerve divide into
Tibial --> post
Peroneal nerve --> radial
What section of the thigh does the sciatic nerve supply?
Post/flex comp of the thigh --> hamstrings
What spinal sections does the sciatic nerve arise from?
L4, L5 S1 S2 S3
What spinal sections does the tibeal nerve arise from
L5, S1, S2 S3
What does the tibeal nerve supply
Post compartment of lower leg muscels
What does the tibeal nerve split into
Where is the politeal fossa?
Arises from the back of the knee and is originally the tibeal nerve
What two syndromes could occur due to damage of tibeal nerve?
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
What injury is likely to occur in relation to sciatic nerve
Spasm in rotator muscles of hip --> affects nerve
Common peroneal/Fib nerve arises from what spinal sectoins
L4, L5, S1, S2
What injuries occur in relation to common peroneal nerve?
Anterior compartment syndrome --> compression of deep fib. nerve
What does the common peroneal/fib nerve divide into
Superficial fib --> lateral composition
Deep fib nerve --> anterior composition
No foot on ground
Limb = weight bearing
When do we develop lower limb buds
6th week of development
What nerves do the proximal joints get supplied from
Prox. spinal nerves
C5 - C6 --> shoulder