Lower Limb Muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Limb Muscles Deck (88):
1

Ileopsoas

Psoas major and iliacus muscles at their inferior cross over the pelvic girdle
They are hip flexors

2

What are the gluteal muscles

Gluteus Max and med and min

3

Where are gluteus med and min found?

Behind max

4

How do glut max and min differ?

Max - power extension
Med and min - abduct the hip, maintain position of pelvis during motion .
They are lateral - going up

5

What are the four muscle compartments of the thigh

Anterior
Post
Medial
Lateral

6

What movement do the anterior thigh muscles do

Hip flexors and knee extensors

7

What movement do the posterior thigh muscles do

Hip extension and knee flexors

8

What movement do the medial thigh muscles do

Hip adduct

9

What muscles compose the anterior thigh muscles?

Sartorius
Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus lateralis
Vastus intermedius

10

Which muscle maintains the allignment of the patella

Vastus medialis

11

What happens when vastus medialis is weak?

Abnormal tracking of patella
lateral patella dislocation

12

What is the posterior compartment of thigh muscles commonly known as?

Hamstring muscles

13

What muscles compose the posterior compartment of the thigh muscles?

Semimembranosus
Simtendinosus
Biceps femoris

14

Where do the posterior compartment thigh muscles attach to

Ischeal tuberosity

15

What are the posterior compartment muscles susceptible to?

Likely to tare since they cross 2 joints

16

Osteitis pubic

Inflamation of muscle insertion

17

What are the medial compartment thigh muscles composed of

gracilis
adductor longus
adductor brevis
adductor magnus

18

What nerve supplies the medial thigh compartment

obturator nerve

19

Where is the medial thigh compartment located?

Inner thigh!

20

What are the three compartments of the lower leg?

Anterior, lateral and posterior

21

What movement do the anterior muscles of the lower leg provide

Dorsi-flexors of ankles and toes

22

What movement do the superficial and deep posterior muscles of the lower leg provide

Superficial -> plantar-flexors of ankles and toes
Deep -> dorsi flexors

23

What movement do the lateral muscles of the lower leg provide?

Foot everters

24

What occurs when you over use the anterior muscles of the lower leg?

Sin splints = tenoperiostosis

25

What are the three muscles of the anterior lower leg compartment?

Tibialis anterior
Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor digitorum longus

26

What is a feature of the anterior compartment of lower leg muscles?

Deep fascia = very strong

27

Glut max:

Across hip?
Across knee?
Main action?

Across hip? Yes
Across knee? No
Main action? Power Extension

28

Sartorius
Across hip?
Across knee?
Main action?

Across hip? yes
Across knee? Yes
Main action? Flex and extension hip

29

Adductor mag nus

Across hip?
Across knee?
Main action?

Across hip? yes
Across knee? yes
Main action? adductor

30

Quadriceps

Across hip?
Across knee?
Main action?

Across hip? Yes - only rectus femoris
Across knee? Yes - pattela tendon
Main action? extensor

31

Hamstring muscles

Across hip?
Across knee?
Main action?

Across hip? Yes - ischeal tuberosity
Across knee? Yes
Main action? Hip exstensors and knee flexors

32

Gastrochnemius

Across hip?
Across knee?
Main action?

Across hip? No
Across knee? Yes & ankle
Main action? Plantar flex

33

Tensor Fascia Latae

Across hip? Yes
Across knee? No
Main action? Stabilise knee in extension

34

The lateral lower leg muscle compartment includes

Fibularis muscles - longus and brevis

35

What is the role of the lower leg muscle compartment?

Not very powerful - they are everters
They are very sensitive to position

36

What is the role of the posterior compartment of muscles in the lower leg?

Generate the force when walking

37

What are the two layers of post. comp. lower leg muscles?

Superficial and deep

38

What muscles are included in the superficial post. lower leg comp?

Gastrocnemius
Plantaris
Soleus

39

Gastrocnemius

Calf muscle
Crosses knee and ankle

40

Plantaris

Small and vestigial

41

Soleus

Found under Gastrocnemius

42

Where do gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus combine>

Distally in the achilles tendon

43

What muscles make up the deep layer of post. compartment of lower leg>

Tibialis post.
Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor digitorum longus

44

What is the role of flexor hallucis longus

Big toe flexor

45

What is the role of flexor digitroium longus

Flexis toes/digits

46

Femoral artery

Major supplier of the thigh

47

Profunda femoris

Largest branch of the fem. artery and gies off cercumflex vessels
Posterior artery and courses deep
gives off branches around the neck of the femur

48

Describe the pathway of the aorta in relation to the leg

Aorta --> L and R ileac arteries --> interior ileac art --> external ileac art --> femoral art -->popilteal arteries --> anter and post --> tibeal arts

49

What nerve supplies the anterior compartment of muscles?

Femoral nerve

50

What are the superficial veins of the legs?

Dorsal venous arches
Great saphenous
Small saphenous

51

Where are the dorsal venous arches found

On top of the foot

52

Where is the great saphenous vein found

Medially superficial

53

Where is the small saphenous vein found

Laterally superficial But penetrates deeply

54

venae comitantes are

a pair of veins, but occasionally more, that closely accompany an artery in such a manner that the pulsations of the artery aid venous return.

55

Varicose veins

Have incompitant valves so blood flows up and down

56

Saphenous vein grafts

Use bits of the saphenous vein to graft around the heard

57

Where are the lymphatic vessels found

Follow superficial veins

58

Where do the lower limb lymphatics drain to

BOTH drain to inguinal nodes

59

Where does the inguinal nodes drain to

LEFT hand side thoracic duct only

60

What plexus do the major nerves of the lower limbs arise from?

Lumbrosacral plexus

61

Describe the lumbar plexus

Anterior rami
L1- L5

62

Describe the sacral plexus

In the pelvic cavity posteriouly
S1-S3 anter. rami and L4 + L5

63

Describe the femoral nerve

L2, L3, L4
Anterior compartment of thigh
Passes UNDER inguinal lig

64

What is the terminal cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve?

Saphenous nerve

65

Is the femoral nerve injured a lot>

RARELY

66

What does the femoral nerve supply?

Quads and skin above them

67

Does the obturator nerve pass through the pelvis?

Yes

68

Where does the obturator nerve give referred pain to?

Ovaries

69

Describe the obturator nerve

l2, l3, l4
Medial comp. of thigh --> adductor muscles
Skin aspect

70

What is the thickest nerve of the body

Sciatic nerve

71

What nerve supplies most of the thigh?

Sciatic nerve

72

What two branches does the sciatic nerve divide into

Tibial --> post
Peroneal nerve --> radial

73

What section of the thigh does the sciatic nerve supply?

Post/flex comp of the thigh --> hamstrings

74

What spinal sections does the sciatic nerve arise from?

L4, L5 S1 S2 S3

75

What spinal sections does the tibeal nerve arise from

L5, S1, S2 S3

76

What does the tibeal nerve supply

Post compartment of lower leg muscels

77

What does the tibeal nerve split into

Politeal fossa
plantar nerve

78

Where is the politeal fossa?

Arises from the back of the knee and is originally the tibeal nerve

79

What two syndromes could occur due to damage of tibeal nerve?

Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Jogger foot

80

What injury is likely to occur in relation to sciatic nerve

Spasm in rotator muscles of hip --> affects nerve

81

Common peroneal/Fib nerve arises from what spinal sectoins

L4, L5, S1, S2

82

What injuries occur in relation to common peroneal nerve?

Foot drop
Anterior compartment syndrome --> compression of deep fib. nerve

83

What does the common peroneal/fib nerve divide into

Superficial fib --> lateral composition
Deep fib nerve --> anterior composition

84

Float phase

No foot on ground

85

Stance phase

Limb = weight bearing

86

When do we develop lower limb buds

6th week of development

87

What nerves do the proximal joints get supplied from

Prox. spinal nerves
C5 - C6 --> shoulder

88

Define venous sinuses

Unlike veins, these sinuses possess no muscular coat. Their lining is endothelium, a layer of cells like that which forms the surface of the innermost coat of the veins