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Flashcards in Lower respiratory tract Deck (41):
1

Describe pleura

Serious membrane

2

What are the 4 types of parietal pleural found on the lungs?

Cervical
mediastinal
Diaphragmatic
costal

3

Describe pleural cavity

Small POTENTIAL space with a few ml's of serious fluid --> decreases friction

4

What surrounds the lung root

Pleural sleeve

5

What is the pleural ligament

Created by the pleural sleeve, which is too big, and hangs down inferiorly --> double fold of pleura

6

Visceral pleural nerve innervation

ANS

7

Pairtal pleural nerve innveration

Somatic

8

Which is likely to be more painful? Visceral or parietal pleura?

Parietal --> receiving SOMATIC nerve inveration

9

Where does the trachea start?

C6

10

What does the trachea seperate into and what does it separate into

Splits at T4/T5 into two bronchi

11

Which bronchi are inhaled objects likely to go down? Why?

Right --> wider, shorter and more vertical

12

Describe tracheal ring

U shape
Cartilagenous
deficient posteriorly,

13

Describe trachealis muscle

Smooth muscle

14

What are the three different types of bronchus

Main
Lobular
Segmental

15

What does the main bronchus supply

The lungs

16

What does the lobular bronchus supply

Lobe

17

What does the segmental bronchus supply

Bronchopulmonary segment

18

What is the order of the three different types of bronchus

Main --> lobular --> segmental

19

Does the right or left hand side give rise to lobular bronchus first

Right

20

What is one way the the lungs protects itself

Segments are completely different to each other
Own venous drainage, own blood supply
And therefore surgically respectable

21

Which lung is heavier

Right

22

Why is the left lung shorter

Because of the heart

23

How many fissures does each lung have

Right --> 2
Left --> 1

24

Why is the right lung wider

Because of the liver

25

What is a fissure

Line the divides the lobs

26

What grooves are found on the medialstinal surface of the RIGHT lung

SVC
Azygous arch
Oesophagus
Cardiac impression

27

What grooves are found on the mediastinal surface of the LEFT lung

Arch of aorta
BIGGER cardiac impression
Descending aorta

28

How many lobes does each lung have

Right --> 3
Left --> 2

29

What are the 3 lobes of the RIGHT lung

Superior, middle and inferrior

30

What are the two lobes of the LEFT lung

Superior and inferior

31

What are the fissures of the lung called

Horizontal --> only found in right
Oblique --> found in both --> seperates sup and inferior

32

What structures enter the hilum of the RIGHT lung

Lymph nodes
Anterior pulmonary vein
Inferior pulmonary vein
Right upper lobe bronchus
Bronchus intermediate

33

What structures enter the hilum of the LEFT lung

Lymph nodes
Anterior pulmonary vein
Inferior pulmonary vein
Left main bronchus

34

What structures only enter the RIGHT lung but not the left?

Right upper bronchus
Bronchus intermediate

35

What plexus do the lungs and visceral pleura receive nerve innervation from

Pulmonary plexus

36

Does the pulmonary plexus have para or sympathetic innervation

BOTH

37

What is the lymphatics pathway

Superfical vessels + deep vessels --> bronchopulmonary nodes --> tracheobronchial nodes --> bronchomediastinal lumph trunks

38

Where are the superficial lymphatic vessels found

Deep in visceral pleura

39

The lower respiratory tract iThe lower respiratory tract includes

inferior larynx, the trachea and the lung

40

Where does the main nerve supply of the diaphragm (phrenic nerves) come from

originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm.

41

Where are the following located, in relation to each other, in the lung hilum:
Main bronchus
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary veins

The main bronchus is posterior in each hilum. The pulmonary artery is superior, as the pulmonary trunk extends up from the heart before branching left and right (Great Vessels, next page). The two pulmonary veins in each hilum are anterior / inferior. (Each of the 4 pulmonary veins goes separately to the left side of the heart.)