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Flashcards in LU1 - Global Communication Theories Deck (17):

List the various normative theories of media systems.

1. Authoritarian
2. Libertarian (Liberal)
3. Soviet theory
4. Social responsibility theory
5. Development media theory
6. Democratic-Participant media theory


Explain what the "authoritarian" media system is

- dictatorial
- justified censorship and punishment for deviation
- common in dictatorial regimes (military control)
- also occurs drug extreme emergencies in democratic regimes
- used to protect social order
- sets clear, close limits to media freedom


Explain what the "libertarian" media system normative theory is.

- free, market-based
- media are allowed to have differing opinions
- press are given freedom of opinion, speech, religion, and assembly
- attempts to tell stories as close to the truth as possible


Explain what the "soviet theory" media system normative theory is.

Media role: collective agitator, propagandist and educator in the building of communism.
- subordination of media
- no freedom of expression
- media must promote communism
- concerns the working class


Explain what the "social responsibility theory" media system normative theory is.

- belief that media ownership and operation are a form of public trust or stewardship rather than an unlimited private franchise.
- use standards, ethics and conduct or control the press
- media is government/business watchdog


Explain what the "development media theory" media system normative theory is.

- intended to recognize that an underdeveloped country that us changing to independent, lack infrastructure, money and traditions etc.
- media addresses poverty, healthcare, literacy, education etc.


Explain what the "democratic-participant media theory" media system normative theory is.

- supports the right to relevant local info
- emcourages media which link senders and receivers
- readers and listeners influence editorial policy


Explain the shortcomings of normative theories of media systems and give one example.

- media failed to engage with entertainment
- the distinction between the soviet, authoritarian and development theories was blurred
- use of the terms: "categories" and "models" is problematic. Models refer to that which should be followed and the media certainly did not follow the guiding principles in practice.

E.g. Communist media claimed that their purpose was to serve the public yet in the late 1980's, there was mass outcry over the media's many coverups and distortions.


Explain and give an example of the influence that the soviet media system has had on understanding media internationally.

1. The Soviet media has a strong overlap with media under other dictatorships and so - called development media.
2. The soviet media system provides us with a valuable entry point for understanding the media in the world at large.


List issues relevant to globalization and mainstream media.

1. Political power
2. Economic crisis
3. Dramatic social transitions
4. Small scale alternative media


Explain "Political Power" as an issue relevant to globalization and mainstream media.

- communist seen as mirror opposites of western media
- soviet media used as perfect counter-example for providing what is right for western media (i.e. Look at what is wrong with Western Media)
- state control over media was extremely tight in soviet Russia to the point that Russians saw no credibility in their media


Explain "Economic Crisis" as an issue relevant to globalization and mainstream media.

- economic crisis was a daily experience for most Russians
- Russian media remained silent over the decline in living standards and productivity
- the media have found it easier to point a blaming finger at the IMF than to hint that the crisis could be due to the Russian kleptocracy (govt. that rules through corruption and theft)


Explain "Dramatic Social Transitions" as an issue relevant to globalization and mainstream media.

- Russian media went through many transitions in 20th century but this is the norm around the world
- what does the rapid concentration of media ownership into the hands of giant transnational corporations mean?
- Is citizen influence over media despite its obvious necessity for a true democracy fated to dwindle slowly to nothing?


Explain "small scale alternative media" as an issue relevant to globalization and mainstream media.

- SAMZIDAT MEDIA (meaning self published instead of state published) contained widely varied messages which were banned by soviet regimes but held more truth for the citizens
- writing, distributing or possessing these materials carried sentences in hard labour camps
- small-scale radical media of this kind have been common around the world
- they play a significant role in putting the power of the media into the hands of the people


Define globalisation.

- term is often used widely and loosely
- sometimes it signifies structural economic changes
- examples: the global rise of government policies on "liberalization" that push for firms to be complete for business in previously state-monopoly sectors such as broadcasting, telecommunications and water or air travel; and the wave of "privatizations," selling off state owned companies to private investors


Define and examine the effects of media imperialism

- the dissemination of media messages from large, developed countries (i.e. USA) to smaller, developing countries (i.e. South Africa) with the aim of dominating those developing countries, often overriding local, cultural identities in the process
- spread of US daily culture and everyday products e.g. Coca-Cola
- seen as negative
- the imbalances of the flow of information from large, developed countries into the developing world


Explain the term hybridization.

- refers to a merging of different perspectives and values to form a new blended hybrid culture
- a combination of media and migration results in hybridization