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Flashcards in Lung Deck (208)
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1

How are the lungs formed?

As small outpouching from the foregut at 5 weeks

2

What are the 4 stages of fetal lung development?

Pseudoglandular 5-15 wks
Canalicular 15-25 wks
Terminal sac 25-40 wks
Alveolar 40 wk-8 yrs

3

Which stage of fetal lung development is incompatible with extrauterine survival.

Pseudoglandular

4

What stage of fetal lung development are early respiratory efforts seen?

Canalicular

5

In what stage of fetal lung development is surfactant produced?

Terminal sac

6

An object aspirated is most likely to go into which stem bronchus? Why?

Right, it is more vertical (a wider angle)

7

How many lobes does the right lung have?

3, upper middle, and lower

8

How many lobes does the left lung have?

2, upper and lower

9

What is unique about the left lung?

It has a cardiac notch where the heart sits and a lingula (middle lobe homologue)

10

What is the most superior region of the lung?

apex

11

What are the more medial portions of the lung that wedge in the heart?

hilar regions

12

What fissure do both lungs have?

oblique

13

What fissure does the right lung have that the left lung does not?

Horizontal fissure

14

What are alveoli composed of?

Type I and Type II pneumocytes and macrophages

15

Which pneumocytes are responsible for gas exchange?

Type I

16

Which pneumocytes produce surfactant?

Type II

17

What is the alveolar septae also known as?

The interstitium

18

What is pulmonary hypoplasia?

decreased lung weight at time of birth

19

What causes pulmonary hypoplasia?

External compression on fetal thorax during development

20

What is a Tracheoesophageal fistula?

abnormal connection between trachea and esophagus

21

What is most common type of tracheoesophageal fistula?

Type C: blind ending upper esophagus and lower TEF

22

What are most TEF associated with?

Esophageal atresia and polyhydramnios

23

What is atelectasis?

collapse of a previously inflated lung

24

What are the symptoms of atelectasis?

hypoxemia, breathlessness, cyanosis, and respiratory distress

25

What is a compication of atelectasis?

Air stagnancy leading to infection

26

What are the different types of atelectasis?

Resorption, Compression, and Contraction

27

What is the most common type of atelectasis? and why does it happen?

Resorption, due to airway obstruction

28

What can cause resorption atelectasis?

Foreign bodies and mucous plugs

29

What is unique about resorption atelectasis?

it will cause the mediastinum to shift towards the atelectic lung

30

What causes compression atelectasis?

outside compression on the lung