Flashcards in Lung cancer Deck (27):
risk factors for lung cancer?
tobacco smoking and asbestos/industrial smoke exposure, genetic mutations EGFR, ALK, KRAS
what does paraneoplastic tumor mean?
tumors secreting hormones like ACTH, PTH, ADH etc
what are the 2 main classifications of lung cancer?
small cell and non small cell
what is a hallmark feature of squamous cell carcinoma?
keratinisation- histologically, keratin pearls
how do we generally subtype lung cancers
where do we generally find adenocarcinomas? what appearance do they have?
peripheral part of the lung; mucoid glandular appearance
what is another name for adenocarcinoma in situ?
If there is non resolving consolidation pneumonia...? what do we expect?
Adenocarcinoma in situ
small cell carcinoma main characteristic?
what is the usual management of small cell carcinoma?
chemotherapy only not surgery
how do we diagnose large cell carcinoma?
diagnosis of exclusion
why do we have to double check small cell carcinoma?
It mimics other tumour types like lymphoma
which is the most common site for distant metastases?
adrenals (> 50% of cases)
what are the 2 most important genetic mutations associated with lung cancer?
ALK and EGFR
EGFR mutations most common in which group of people?
young non smoking asian females
ALK mutations are most common in which group of people?
40-60 non smoking men
which has a higher survival rate out of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma?
squamous cell carcinoma
what are the types of lung tumours that show neuroendocrine differentiation?
typical carcinoma, atypical carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
what are some complications of lung cancers?
recurrent laryngeal nerve and phrenic nerve palsies, SVC obstruction, Horner's syndrome, metastases, hormone secretion (paraneoplastic), proximal myopathy, Lambert eaton's syndrome
how do we stage the tumour? What imaging modalities do we use?
what does bronchoscopy achieve?
histological assessment of the lung cancer
what can a CXR establish for lung cancer?
can see peripheral nodule, hilar enlargement, consolidation, pleural effusions
what is pancoast's tumour?
a tumour that is anatomically located in the apical lobes. Usually non small cell carcinoma. This tumour can compress nerves --> T1 nerve dysfunction and Horner's syndrome. It can also compress phrenic and recurrent laryngeal nerve
what is Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy?
HPOA is associated with non small cell carcinoma that symptomatically presents as clubbing and wrist pain
which lung cancers are more likely to be central?
small cell and squamous cell
on CXR- what would make you think of a malignancy?
obvious mass and or large unilateral pleural effusion