Lung cancer Flashcards Preview

Core conditions Olivia MD > Lung cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lung cancer Deck (27):
1

risk factors for lung cancer?

tobacco smoking and asbestos/industrial smoke exposure, genetic mutations EGFR, ALK, KRAS

2

what does paraneoplastic tumor mean?

tumors secreting hormones like ACTH, PTH, ADH etc

3

what are the 2 main classifications of lung cancer?

small cell and non small cell

4

what is a hallmark feature of squamous cell carcinoma?

keratinisation- histologically, keratin pearls

5

how do we generally subtype lung cancers

Immunocytochemistry

6

where do we generally find adenocarcinomas? what appearance do they have?

peripheral part of the lung; mucoid glandular appearance

7

what is another name for adenocarcinoma in situ?

bronchioalveolar carcinoma

8

If there is non resolving consolidation pneumonia...? what do we expect?

Adenocarcinoma in situ

9

small cell carcinoma main characteristic?

neuroendocrine differentiation

10

what is the usual management of small cell carcinoma?

chemotherapy only not surgery

11

how do we diagnose large cell carcinoma?

diagnosis of exclusion

12

why do we have to double check small cell carcinoma?

It mimics other tumour types like lymphoma

13

which is the most common site for distant metastases?

adrenals (> 50% of cases)

14

what are the 2 most important genetic mutations associated with lung cancer?

ALK and EGFR

15

EGFR mutations most common in which group of people?

young non smoking asian females

16

ALK mutations are most common in which group of people?

40-60 non smoking men

17

which has a higher survival rate out of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma?

squamous cell carcinoma

18

what are the types of lung tumours that show neuroendocrine differentiation?

typical carcinoma, atypical carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

19

what are some complications of lung cancers?

recurrent laryngeal nerve and phrenic nerve palsies, SVC obstruction, Horner's syndrome, metastases, hormone secretion (paraneoplastic), proximal myopathy, Lambert eaton's syndrome

20

how do we stage the tumour? What imaging modalities do we use?

CT, PET

21

what does bronchoscopy achieve?

histological assessment of the lung cancer

22

what can a CXR establish for lung cancer?

can see peripheral nodule, hilar enlargement, consolidation, pleural effusions

23

what is pancoast's tumour?

a tumour that is anatomically located in the apical lobes. Usually non small cell carcinoma. This tumour can compress nerves --> T1 nerve dysfunction and Horner's syndrome. It can also compress phrenic and recurrent laryngeal nerve

24

what is Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy?

HPOA is associated with non small cell carcinoma that symptomatically presents as clubbing and wrist pain

25

which lung cancers are more likely to be central?

small cell and squamous cell

26

on CXR- what would make you think of a malignancy?

obvious mass and or large unilateral pleural effusion

27

what is 1st line treatment for a single cancerous nodule?

lobectomy