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.Path Slides Exam 2 > Lungs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lungs Deck (111):
1

contrast atopic vs. non-atopic

  • in non-atopic:
    • DON'T see increased IgE,
    • no family history
    • DO see Curschmann spirals, Charcot-Layden crystals and neutrophils

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2

describe complications of the condition shown in the image

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  • complications:
    • empyema
    • bronchopleural fistula
    • septicemia (meningitis, brain abscess)
    • AA amyloidosis → restrictive cardiomyopathy 

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3

describe the image 

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sarcoidosis

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4

describe the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with the condition seen in the image

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  • SIAD (dilutional hyponaterima): leads to cerebral edema and papilledema
  • gonadotropins
  • Cushing syndrome: buffalo hump, purple striae, moon face d/t bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
  • gastrin releasing peptide: stimulates G cells to secrete acid and hyper-motility of GI
  • antibodies to pre-synaptic Ca2+ channels = Lambert-Eaton syndrome 

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5

describe the etiology of the condition seen in the image

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  • etiology: smoking, radon and asbestos
    • smoking + asbestos = highest risk
    • men > women
    • gene mutations = RB, P16, p53

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6

describe the presentation of the cardiogenic form of the disease shown in the image

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  • presentation:
    • decreased diffusing capacity, hypoxemia, and shortness of breath
    • increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
    • NO hyaline membrane
    • at 2 weeks, hemosiderin layden macrophages/heart failure cells

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7

describe the etiology of the disease seen in the image

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  • etiology: obligate intracellular bacteria → "walking pneumonia"
    • most common = Mycoplasma pneumoniae (younger people → military recruits/students)
    • chlamydia & Coxiella burnetti (from sheep → farmers/vets)
    • viruses = CMV/influenza

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8

describe complications of the disease seen in the image

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  • complications:
    • multi-organ problems
    • pulm. failure
    • cor pulmonale
    • contraction atelectasis
    • hypercalcemia → kidney stones

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9

describe the image

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10

describe the minor form of the condition seen in the image

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  • minor = small vessels → asymptomatic
    • if there are a series of recurring minor embolisms → marginate on the walls of the pulm. artery → flow encounters increased resistance → pulm. HTN → RHF WITHOUT LHF 

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11

describe the presentation of the disease in the image

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  • presentation:
    • dry cough with dyspnea (crackles on inspiration)
    • finger clubbing
    • pulm. fibrosis
    • geographic heterogeneity = favors lower lobe first
    • temporal heterogeneity = coexisting of old type I collagen and new fibrosis
    • cobblestone pleural surface → honeycomb lung (pockets of airspaces (cystic spaces) contain mucus and lined by type II pneumocytes)
    • x-ray: bilateral reticulo-nodular shadows mainly lower lobes w/honeycomb lungs

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12

describe why metastatic calcification is seen in the disease shown in the image

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  • epithelioid cells activate vit. D via 1-alpha hydroxylase activity → hypercalcemia → metastatic calcification

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13

describe the histology of the condition seen in the image

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  • keratin pearls = well differentiated in fxn
  • intercellular bridges
  • individual cell keratinization

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14

describe investigations for atopic asthma

  • investigations:
    • sputum cytology = Curschmann spirals (shredding of bronchial epithelial cells + mucus) & Charcot-Layden crystals (MBP & eosinophilic cationic protein)
    • x-ray: hyperinflated lung fields
    • flow meter: decreased peak flow rate
    • blood CBC: lots of eosinophils (eosinophilia)
    • pulm. function tests: decreased FEV1: FVC ratio and increased TLC and RV

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15

describe the pathogenesis of the disease seen in the image

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  • pathogenesis:
    • alveolar spaces are free/empty, inflammation in alveolar wall (thickened septae) → cough is DRY
      • leukocytes + mononuclear cells (NO PMNs bc no cell death)

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16

describe the pathogenesis of the disease seen in the image

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  • pathogenesis:
    • bilateral fibrosis of interstitium → severe hypoxia

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17

describe the image

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18

describe the cell of origin for the condition seen in the image

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  • cell of origin = Kulchitsky (neuroendocrine cells)
    • 99% associated with cigarette smoking

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19

describe NSIPF

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20

describe the pathogenesis for small cell carcinoma

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  • myc amplification (most common)
  • p53
  • pRB
  • 3p deletion

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21

who does the disease in the image mainly effect?

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males over 60; smokers

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22

describe what condition is seen in the image

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atelectasis 

  • lung collapse → decreased O2 → shortness of breath

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23

describe the panacinar form of the disease shown in the image

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  • panacinar: entire acinus from respiratory bronchioles to the alveolar ducts; lower lobes
    • deficiency of A1AT - PiZZ homozygous recessive on ch. 14 (misfolded protein)
    • A1AT accumulates in the ER

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24

describe how the disease shown in the image occurs in young, immunocompetent patients

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  • lobar = young immunocompetent
    • streptococcus pneumoniae (95%)
    • COMPLETE RESOLUTION
    • speads via pores of Kohn
      • architecture stays intact
      • confluent consolidation of entire lobe
      • bronchi are NOT involved

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25

name indirect causes of the disease shown in the image

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  • indirect causes:
    • acute pancreatitis (enzymes causing damage to lung)
    • uremia
    • sepsis
    • burns

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26

the patient can die from ____ in the condition seen in the image

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patient dies from  respiratory failure due to overproduction of mucin

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27

describe the concept of contraction

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  • contraction = IRREVERSIBLE due to pulm. fibrosis
    • trachea in either direction or central bc both lungs are affected
    • caused by all restrictive lung diseases which lead to fibrosis (irreversible)
    • FEV1:FVC ration is normal but decreased TLC and RV

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28

describe the pathogenesis of the disease seen in the image

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29

describe what would be seen on biopsy of the condition seen in the image

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  • biopsy = malignant glands invading stroma
    • produce lots of mucin → well differentiated in fxn
    • positive for cytokeratin & PAS (diastase resistant bc no glycogen)
    • prominent nucleus & nucleolus and dispersed chromatin

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30

describe complications of the disease seen in the image

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  • complications:
    • resp. failure early
    • cor pulmonale early
    • cirrhosis/nutmeg liver
    • resorption atelectasis
    • recurrent pneumonia → lung abscess → bronchiectasis 

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31

describe what the condition in the image is composed of

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  • composed of:
    • hyaline cartilage
    • fat cells
    • smooth muscle
    • resp. epi.

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32

describe the presentation of the disease shown in the image

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  • presentation: 
    • skinny (compensating and using accessory muscles)
    • barrel-chested (bc obstructive lung disease)
    • pursed lip breathing
      • "pink puffers" = prolonged expiration through pursed lips → compensating early to prevent cyanosis and hypoxia
    • minimal sputum

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33

describe a massive form of the condition seen in the image

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  • massive: large saddle embolus straddles the bifurcation of the pulm. artery; caused by DVT
    • sudden obstruction of 60% of pulm. vasculature 
    • sudden death & no time to develop infarction, lungs not affected → look normal
      • death due to electromechanical dissociation
    • example: hospitalized patients who get out of bed 1st time dies immediately

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34

describe the image seen

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asthma

  • top photo: 
    • yellow arrow = eosinophils
    • blue arrow = smooth muscle hypertrophy
    • green arrow = goblet cell hyperplasia
    • black arrow = thickened BM
  • bottom photo:
    • Curschmann spirals in a patient with bronchial asthma (shredded bronchial epithelial cells found in sputum)

35

describe the immunohistochemical stain for the condition seen in the image

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immunohistochemical stains: TTF-1, cytokeratin 7, napsin-A

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36

describe what is seen in the image

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37

describe what is seen in the image

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38

describe the pathogenesis of the disease seen in the image

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  • pathogenesis:
    • type IV hypersensitivity with non-caseating granuloma w/ lymphanetic distribution
    • incidental finding of bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
      • eventually leads to honeycomb lung w/ pulm. fibrosis
    • Schaumann body (laminated Ca2+ concretions due to metastatic calcification)
    • Asteroid bodies = proteinaceous inclusions in giant cells

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39

describe the major form of the condition seen in the image

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  • major = multiple medium vessels; presents with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain & hemoptysis, tachypnea, tachycardia and V/Q mismatch
    • if bronchial arteries are intact → only hemorrhage, no infarction/necrosis
    • if bronchial arteries are compromised OR cardiac failure → red infarct (10% bc of collateral circulation)
      • usually in lower lobes

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40

describe the image

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41

describe what is seen in the image

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42

describe the prognosis of the condition seen in the image

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  • worst prognosis since already metastasized
  • cannot be resected → need chemotherapy/radiotherapy

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43

describe the irregular form of the disease seen in the image

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  • irregular (paracictratrical):
    • only one with fibrosis and contraction atelectasis
    • usually asymptomatic 

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44

describe the presentation of the disease seen in the image

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  • presentation:
    • high spike fevers
    • halitosis
    • productive cough with foul-smelling sputum
    • finger clubbing (due to hypoxia)
    • hemoptysis

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45

describe the pathogenesis of the disease seen in the image

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  • pathogenesis:
    • bronchus: squamous metaplasia, goblet cell hyperplasia and goblet metaplasia into bronchioles
    • thickened BM
    • hypertrophy of bronchial smooth muscle
    • hypertrophy/hyperplasia of seromucinous glands
  • Reid index (ratio of thickness of submucosal gland:overall bronchial wall) is elevated >50% (normal = 40%)

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46

describe the pathogenesis of atopic bronchial asthma

  • atopic: extrinsic; genetic/family history
  • pathogenesis:
    • type 1 hypersensitivity 
      • 1st exposure = antigen presentation, class switch to IgE
      • 2nd exposure = cross-linking on surface of mast cell → mast cell degranulation → histamine & leukotrienes → edema/exudate/neutrophils/bronchoconstriction (early phase)
      • IL-5 → chemotactic for eosinophils → MBP → damages cells and causes bronchoconstriction (late phase reaction, 4-24 hours)

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47

describe complications of the disease seen in the image

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  • complications:
    • resp. failure
    • pulm. fibrosis
    • contraction atelectasis
    • cor pulmonale
    • nutmeg liver (chronic passive congestion)

48

describe the complications associated with the condition seen in the image

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  • complications:
    • centrally located = blocks bronchial lumen and no cilia → resorptive atelectasis
    • mucous trapped → recurrent bronchopneumonia → lung abscess → bronchiectasis
    • bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
    • SVC syndrome
      • edema of face and upper extremities, DJV, cyanosis
    • hoarseness → left recurrent laryngeal n.

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49

what is the most common origin and risk factor for the condition seen in the image?

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  • most common origin = deep leg veins (femoral, popliteal, iliac)
  • most common risk factor = stasis
  • most often clinically silent

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50

describe the presentation of atopic asthma

  • expiratory wheeze, chest tightness, productive cough, SOB, histamine → edema
    • NO hypertension

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51

name complications of neonatal atelectasis

  • intraventricular hemorrhage
  • PDA (persistent hypoxemia)
  • necrotizing enterocolitis (intestinal ischemia)
    • bloody diarrhea
  • hypoglycemia (excessive insulin release)
  • O2 therapy → increased ROS formation, can lead to:
    • damage to lungs (bronchopulmonary dysplasia)
    • cataracts/retinal damage (blindness) 

52

describe investigations for the disease seen in the image

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  • investigations:
    • sputum cytology = mixed flora of anaerobes (make it foul smelling) & aerobes
    • high res CT = train track appearance because there is dilatation all the way to pleural surface

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53

describe the triad seen in all forms of the disease in the image

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  • triad:
    • iron def. anemia (d/t blood loss)
    • cough with hemoptysis
    • pulm. infiltrates on x-ray

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54

describe Wegener's granulomatosis (aka granulomatosis with polyangiitis, GPA)

  • URT symptoms = naso-mucosal ulceration, sinusitis
  • LRT = necrotizing pneumonia, granulomatous vasculitis that does NOT spare the lung → lung abscess
  • affects kidneys → renal infarcts and affects glomeruli capillaries (glomerular nephritis → crescent shape) → hematuria

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55

describe how the condition in the image occurs

  • aspiration, complicated pneumonia, obstruction, septic emboli
    • predisposing factors: alcoholics, stroke patients (decreased gag reflex), intubated, seizure, Alzheimer's or any hospital bedridden patients
    • aspiration = more common on RIGHT side
      • standing = bottom of right lung
      • laying down = top of right lung

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56

describe the pathogenesis of the disease seen in the image

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57

describe the histology of the condition seen in the image

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  • histology:
    • round, scant cytoplasm, finely granular chromatin
    • frequent mitotic bodies
    • cytology shows nuclear molding (NOT in bronchial carcinoid)

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58

describe complications seen in the condition in the image

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  • cervical sympathetic syndrome 
    • ipsilateral Horner syndrome (ptosis, anhydrosis, miosis = PAM)
    • wasting of thenar eminence b/c of brachial plexus compression
    • recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis & dysphagia (compressed esophagus)
    • SVC syndrome = triad: cyanosis, DJV, edema of face and arms

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59

describe the secondary cause of the condition seen in the image

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  • secondary: endothelial dysfunction due to underlying disorder → loss of vasodilators (NO) or increase in vasoconstrictors (endothelin, serotonin)
    • pulmonary: obstructive and restrictive lung diseases (except bronchial asthma), recurrent minor pulm. embolism
      • high altitude
    • cardiac: L → R shunt (ASD, VSD, PDA), mitral stenosis
      • loud P2: pulmonary valve makes a sound when it closes

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60

describe complications of the disease seen in the image

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  • complications:
    • respiratory failure and cor pulmonale (R heart failure secondary to pulm. hypertension)
      • after 2 weeks → liver cirrhosis/nutmeg liver 
      • Pores of Kohn are easier to be spread by → lobar pneumonia is worse if acquired

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61

in testing for the condition seen in the image, ____ will be elevated

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in testing for the condition seen in the image, pulmonary capillary wedge pressures will be elevated (cardiac catheterization measures pressures of heart)

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62

describe the paraneoplastic syndrome associated with the condition seen in the image

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PTH-related peptide → hypercalcemia → can result in metastatic calcification

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63

describe who the disease shown in the image mainly affects

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  • AAs, Danish, Swedish; higher incidence in non-smokers and young females (AA female)

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64

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

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  • presentation:
    • dyspnea
    • cachexia (bc of TNF alpha)
    • finger clubbing
    • hemoptysis

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65

describe the etiology (cardiogenic) of the disease shown in the image

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  • etiology (of cardiogenic pulm. edema)
    • LHF 

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66

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

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  • presentation:
    • productive cough (foul-smelling sputum)
    • halitosis
    • hemoptysis
    • finger clubbing
    • high spiking fever
    • weight loss
  • x-ray: cavity with air-fluid level (liquefactive necrosis due to pyogenic bacteria)
  • sputum: mixed flora

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67

describe the diagnosis of the disease seen in the image

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  • diagnosis:
    • sudden onset
    • ground glass appearance on XR
    • bilateral diffusion interstitial infiltrates
    • pulm. edema with NORMAL pulm. capillary wedge pressure (not a heart problem, increased wedge pressure seen in heart problems)
    • refractory hypoxemia (even w/ supplemental O2, cyanosis continues due to hyaline membranes → diffusion barrier)

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68

describe the image

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diffuse pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome

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69

describe the centroacinar form of the disease shown in the image

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  • centroacinar: respiratory bronchioles & upper lobes
    • have to be a smoker b/c normal levels of A1AT but elastase overwhelms the A1AT

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70

describe the organizing (proliferative) phase of the disease seen in the image

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  • organizing (proliferative) phase = 4 days - 3 weeks
    • proliferation of type II pneumocytes & fibroblasts which lay down collagen → organization of fibrin exudates → fibrosis & alveolar septal thickening
      • chronic inflammation = pulm. fibrosis → contraction atelectasis
      • cor pulmonale = R heart failure secondary to lung disease

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71

describe the etiology of non-atopic asthma

  • non-atopic: intrinsic; aspirin and viral infxns
    • aspirin: inhibits COX and favors lipooxygenase → increased LTs → bronchoconstriction + bronchospasms
      • aspirin triad = nasal polyps, intrinsic asthma, rhinitis, hives
    • viral: lowers threshold for sub-epithelial vagal receptors to irritants → increased ACh binding → increased PS response → bronchoconstriction

72

name 2 other findings in the disease shown in the image

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  • polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia = dysregulation of T cells
  • cutaneous anergy = develop sarcoidosis following TB, use all T cells and epithelioid cells to form non-caseating granulomas → no cells to mount response to PPD →become PPD (-) (even w/ TB)

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73

describe the pathogenesis of the condition seen in the image

  • pathogenesis: pseudostratified → stratified squamous
    • precursor lesion = squamous dysplasia
    • squamous metaplasia → dysplasia → sq. cell carcinoma in situ → invasive sq. cell carcinoma

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74

describe the images 

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75

name direct causes of the disease shown in the image

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  • direct causes:
    • pulmonary contusion (bruises) due to blunt force trauma to chest
    • near-drowning experiences
    • aspiration pneumonia 

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76

describe the pathogenesis and location of the condition seen in the image

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  • cell of origin = bronchioalveolar stem cell/Clara cell
  • precursor lesion = atypical adenomatous hyperplasia 
  • located peripherally = coin lesion on x-ray

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77

describe the investigations and complications of the disease seen in the image

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  • investigations:
    • NO dullness on percussion → bc alveolar spaces are empty
    • x-ray = interstitial infiltrates; ground glass opacity
    • serology = IgM, IgG titers = most accurate
  • complications:
    • ARDS → hyaline membranes on autopsy 

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78

describe Goodpasture's disease

  • pulmonary-renal disorder typically in young men; type II HS
    • proliferative and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
    • hemorrhagic interstitial pneumonia
    • antibodies attacking glomerular & pulmonary BM (α3 chain of type IV collagen)
    • triad seen but also affects kidney → glomerular nephritis → hematuria
    • NEVER see URT → no nasal ulceration or sinusitis

79

describe the concept of resorption 

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80

describe the symptoms seen in the disease shown in the image

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  • sudden onset SOB, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis → resp. acidosis (high CO2)

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81

describe the disease shown in the image

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permanent destruction & dilatation of airways distal to terminal bronchioles without fibrosis (exception: irregular type) 

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82

describe the presentation of the disease seen in the image

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  • presentation: 
    • mild symptoms in the beginning (dry cough and low grade fever), DAD → hyaline membrane

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83

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

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  • presentation: fatigue, syncope, dyspnea upon exertion, chest pain
    • severe resp. insufficiency, cyanosis, death from RHF 2-5 years from diagnosis
    • long standing/chronic severe → plexiform lesions = vasculature channels within the intima → multiple lumina within a small artery at a branch point from a larger artery 
    • smaller capillaries can't take extreme pressure & undergo fibrinoid necrosis, dilations and hemorrhage
      • sign of chronic pulm. HT

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84

describe the causes of the disease seen in the image

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  • cause:
    • #1 is CF
    • Kartegeners syndrome (sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility in males, situs inversus/dextrocardia)
    • chronic bronchitis (mucus plugs)
    • allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
    • TB
    • centrally located tumors

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85

describe the presentation of the disease seen in the image

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  • presentation:
    • blue bloaters bc mucus plugs trap CO2, increase paCO2 and decrease paO2
      • cor pulmonale → ascites and peripheral edema
    • decreased FEV1:FVC ratio and increased TLC and RV
    • x-ray: see pneumonia bc no cilia and resorption atelectasis bc of mucus plugs blocking the bronchial lumen
    • ABG: hypoxia, hypercapnia, resp. acidosis
      • peripheral chemoreceptors detect low O2 but no increased PCO2 → can't give O2 bc pts stop breathing

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86

describe status asthmaticus

common in extrinsic/non-atopic asthma

  • do not respond to medications
  • severe and unresponsive to therapy
  • severe mucus plugs → resportive atelectasis
  • require intubation

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87

describe complications of the disease seen in the image

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  • complications:
    • can lead to resp. failure, cor pulmonale
    • decreased FEV1:FVC, increased TLC and RV
    • metastatic abscesses
    • sepsis if travels to blood
    • resorption atelectasis due to obstruction of bronchial lumen
    • AA amyloidosis due to chronic inflam. condition

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88

describe the acute phase of the disease seen in the image

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  • acute phase (exudative phase) = 0-4 days
    • neutrophils, necrotic debris, fibrin
    • heavy and firm lungs, interstitial and intra-alveolar edema/hemorrhage, necrosis and sloughing of alveolar epithelial cells
    • see hyaline membrane → made up of debris and fibrin → diffusion barrier

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89

describe the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with the condition seen in the image

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  • paraneoplastic syndrome = hematological → all due to MUCIN
    • Trousseau's = thrombus in superficial vein → vein is red, hot, swollen, painful → recurrent and migratory
    • sterile vegetations on heart valves = nonbacterial endocarditis = Marantic endocarditis
      • aortic valve → aortic regurg. → diastolic murmur → pulm. edema

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90

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

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  • presents like lobar pneumonia
    • productive cough with a lot of sputum
    • SOB, pleuritic chest pain
    • NO coin lesion
    • consolidation of the lobe on x-ray

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91

describe the disease shown in the image

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92

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

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  • presentation:
    • dyspnea
    • cachexia (b/c of TNF alpha)
    • finger clubbing (all lung cancers)

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93

describe the immunohistochemical stain for the condition seen in the image

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neuroendocrine markers = synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56

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94

describe the cell of origin and markers for staining for the condition seen in the image

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  • cell of origin = Kulchitsky (neuroendocrine) cells
  • same neuroendocrine markers as small cell = synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56

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95

describe how the disease shown in the image can occur in sick, immunocompromised, elderly patients

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  • bronchopneumonia: patchy lung; bronchi and bronchioles are damaged
    • Klebsiella → alcoholics, diabetics → aspiration
      • red currant jelly sputum
    • Pseduomonas → CF, ventilators, burns, lung abscesses
    • Klebiella and Pseudomonas both cause necrotizing pneumonia bc they are angio-invasive → endothelial damage
    • S. aureus following viral infxn (influenza)
    • Legionella → contaminated water sources (ACs)

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96

what hormone is used to monitor treatment of the disease shown in the image?

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ACE is elevated in sarcoidosis → used to monitor response to treatment

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97

describe the complications of the cardiogenic form of the disease shown in the image

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  • complication:
    • can lead to pulm. HT → heart failure cells
    • will NOT lead to cor pulmonale bc cardiac problem CAME FIRST

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98

describe the pattern of growth of the condition seen in the image

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there is a  lepidic pattern on biopsy (butterfly on fence)

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99

describe carcinoid syndrome

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  • carcinoid syndrome = episodic flushing, wheezing, diarrhea due to increased serotonin
    • look for 5-HIAA in urine

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100

describe the pathogenesis of the cardiogenic form of the disease shown in the image

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  • pathogenesis:
    • <2 weeks = transudate due to increased hydrostatic pressure
    • 2 weeks = alveolar wall fibrosis, heart failure cells

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101

describe the septal/distal acinar form of the disease seen in the image

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  • septal (distal acinar):
    • rupture into pleural space → bullae & pneumothorax → compression atelectasis

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102

describe other causes of the condition seen in the image

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  • other causes of lung abscess: vasculitis
    • lymphomatoid granulomatosis: associated with EBV and necrotizing granulomas
    • Wegener's granulomatosis → aspergilloma
    • Churg Strauss

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103

name the cell of origin and precursor lesion of the condition seen in the image

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cell of origin = bronchoalveolar stem cells (Clara cells)

precursor lesion = atypical adenomatous hyperplasia

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104

describe the primary causes of the condition seen in the image

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  • primary = mutation in BMPR2 
    • BMPR2 normally binds to TGFB and inhibits smooth muscle proliferation
    • mutation causes hyperplasia of smooth muscle and increased vascular resistance
    • common in young females 20-40

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105

describe complications of the condition seen in the image

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  • complications:
    • location makes it easy to cause pleural effusions → compression atelectasis
    • left side → pericardial effusion → pericardial tamponade (hypotension, DJV, distant heart sounds = Beck's triad)

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106

describe the concept of compression

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  • compression = reversible
    • pneumothorax, hemothorax, pneumohemothorax, chylothorax (lymph), empyema (pus), pleural effusion
    • X-ray: trachea deviates to OPPOSITE SIDE 

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107

describe diagnosis of the disease seen in the image

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  • diagnosis:
    • decreased FEV1:FVC ratio, increased TLC and RV
    • ABG: decreased O2, normal pH and normal CO2
      • later stages = pH drops and CO2 increases while O2 decreases
    • x-ray: hyperlucent (air trapping), hyperinflated lungs with flattened domes of diaphragm and narrow mediastinum
      • increased AP diameter (barrel)

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108

describe the genetic mutations seen in the condition in the image

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  • etiology:
    • KRAS = smokers
    • EGFR = women, non-smokers, Asians
    • ALK = signet adenocarcinoma in non-smokers

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109

describe the etiology of the non-cardiogenic form of the disease shown in the image

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  • non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema etiology:
    • ARDS, high altitude, neurogenic, pulm. thromboembolism

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110

describe the complications of the condition seen in the image

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  • complications: RHF → nutmeg liver
    • HEAD: hepatosplenomegaly, peripheral edema, ascites, distended jugular vein

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111

describe the disease seen in the image and its etiology

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productive cough of foul-smelling, purulent sputum for 3 consecutive months for 2 consecutive years 

  • etiology: cigarrette smoking, 40-45 years old

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