Flashcards in Lungs & Pleura Deck (34)
What is the visceral pleura?
The layer of serous membrane covering the lung
What is the parietal pleura?
The layer of serous membrane covering the thoracic cavity
How is the parietal pleura further subdivided?
mediastinal pleura, diaphragmatic pleura, costal pleura, cervical pleura
What is the costodiaphragmatic recess?
The space at the base of the thoracic cavity where the lung doesn’t fill the pleural cavity (except on full inspiration)
What is the pulmonary ligament?
The double fold of pleura that hangs down around the hilar structures - creates a dead space for the vessels to expand in to
How much fluid is in the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura?
A few mLs
What is a pneumothorax?
When air fills the potential space
What is a haemothorax?
When blood fills the potential space
What is the nerve supply of the visceral pleura?
Autonomic nerve supply - referred pain is dull and poorly located
What is the nerve supply of the parietal pleura?
Somatic nerve supply - referred pain is sharp, sever and well located
What is pleurisy?
Inflammation of the pleura
Where does the trachea commence?
Where does the trachea divide?
Which main bronchus is shorter wider and more vertical?
What is the muscle that closes the trachea posteriorly?
The tracheal is muscle
How many bronchopulmonary segments are there?
What is a bronchopulmonary segment?
A zone of functionally distinct lung tissue - receives its own segmental bronchus and its own arterial supply and venous drainage
Why is the apical segment clinically significant?
Because it is the first segment to come off posteriorly so if someone is lying flat on their back and vomits and aspirates the vomit this is where it will go - located at the top segment of the lower lobe
What are the fissures of the right lung?
The horizontal fissure between the upper and middle lobe and the oblique fissure between the lower and middle lobes
What are the imprints on the medial surface of the right lung?
SVC, right atrium, arch of azygous
What is the fissure of the left lung?
The oblique fissure
What is the lingula?
A projection of the upper lobe of the left lung beneath the cardiac notch
What is the cardiac notch?
The notch cut out of the upper lobe of the left lung from where the heart sits
What are the imprints on the left lung?
The left ventricle and the arch of the aorta
What structures enter at the hilum?
Bronchi, pulmonary arteries, bronchial arteries, pulmonary veins (4), hilar lymph nodes
What bronchial structures enter at the right lung hilum?
Right upper lobe bronchus and the bronchus intermedius
What is the bronchus intermedius?
The right main bronchus after its given off the right upper lobe bronchus
What is the position of the pulmonary veins in the hilum?
The most anterior and inferior structures
What bronchial structures enter at the left lung hilum?
Just the left main bronchus
What lymphatic drainage of the lung is there?
Superfifical and deep
Where is the superficial lymphatic drainage?
Just beneath the visceral pleura - gives a black web like appearance
Where is the deep lymphatic drainage?
Follos the bronchi and pulmonary vessels
Where are the lymph nodes located?
At the hilum and at the bifurcation of the trachea