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Flashcards in Lungs & Pleura Deck (34)
1

What is the visceral pleura?

The layer of serous membrane covering the lung

2

What is the parietal pleura?

The layer of serous membrane covering the thoracic cavity

3

How is the parietal pleura further subdivided?

mediastinal pleura, diaphragmatic pleura, costal pleura, cervical pleura

4

What is the costodiaphragmatic recess?

The space at the base of the thoracic cavity where the lung doesn’t fill the pleural cavity (except on full inspiration)

5

What is the pulmonary ligament?

The double fold of pleura that hangs down around the hilar structures - creates a dead space for the vessels to expand in to

6

How much fluid is in the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura?

A few mLs

7

What is a pneumothorax?

When air fills the potential space

8

What is a haemothorax?

When blood fills the potential space

9

What is the nerve supply of the visceral pleura?

Autonomic nerve supply - referred pain is dull and poorly located

10

What is the nerve supply of the parietal pleura?

Somatic nerve supply - referred pain is sharp, sever and well located

11

What is pleurisy?

Inflammation of the pleura

12

Where does the trachea commence?

C6

13

Where does the trachea divide?

At T4/5

14

Which main bronchus is shorter wider and more vertical?

The right

15

What is the muscle that closes the trachea posteriorly?

The tracheal is muscle

16

How many bronchopulmonary segments are there?

10

17

What is a bronchopulmonary segment?

A zone of functionally distinct lung tissue - receives its own segmental bronchus and its own arterial supply and venous drainage

18

Why is the apical segment clinically significant?

Because it is the first segment to come off posteriorly so if someone is lying flat on their back and vomits and aspirates the vomit this is where it will go - located at the top segment of the lower lobe

19

What are the fissures of the right lung?

The horizontal fissure between the upper and middle lobe and the oblique fissure between the lower and middle lobes

20

What are the imprints on the medial surface of the right lung?

SVC, right atrium, arch of azygous

21

What is the fissure of the left lung?

The oblique fissure

22

What is the lingula?

A projection of the upper lobe of the left lung beneath the cardiac notch

23

What is the cardiac notch?

The notch cut out of the upper lobe of the left lung from where the heart sits

24

What are the imprints on the left lung?

The left ventricle and the arch of the aorta

25

What structures enter at the hilum?

Bronchi, pulmonary arteries, bronchial arteries, pulmonary veins (4), hilar lymph nodes

26

What bronchial structures enter at the right lung hilum?

Right upper lobe bronchus and the bronchus intermedius

27

What is the bronchus intermedius?

The right main bronchus after its given off the right upper lobe bronchus

28

What is the position of the pulmonary veins in the hilum?

The most anterior and inferior structures

29

What bronchial structures enter at the left lung hilum?

Just the left main bronchus

30

What lymphatic drainage of the lung is there?

Superfifical and deep

31

Where is the superficial lymphatic drainage?

Just beneath the visceral pleura - gives a black web like appearance

32

Where is the deep lymphatic drainage?

Follos the bronchi and pulmonary vessels

33

Where are the lymph nodes located?

At the hilum and at the bifurcation of the trachea

34

What is the nerve supply to the lungs?

Sympathetic and parsympathetic via the pulmonary plexus (associated with the bifurcation of the trachea) which goes to a hilar plexus