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Flashcards in Lungs and Respiration Deck (21):

What is the Thorax?

The top half of your body


What is the diaphragm?

Thorax is separated from the lower half of the body by the diaphragm


What are the lungs surrounded and protected by?

Rib cage and pleural membranes


Where does the air travel through when breathed in?

The trachea


Where does the air go after going through the trachea?

two tubes called bronchi


Where does the bronchi lead to?

The lungs


Where does the bronchi them split into?

Split into progressively smaller tubes called bronchioles


Where does the air go after reaching the bronchioles?

The alveoli and gas exchange takes place


How does the alveoli carry out gas exchange?

Alveoli covered in blood capillaries

blood flowing next to the alveoli has just come to the lungs after going around the body so has lots of CO2

Oxygen diffuses out of the alveoli ( high conc ) to the blood (low conc)

CO2 diffuses also out of the blood (high conc) to the alveoli (low conc) to be breathed out

When blood reaches body cells the red blood cell diffuses oxygen into the body cell

and also takes CO2 from the body cell onto the red blood cell

then blood is carried back to the lungs


How do you calculate breaths per minute?

bpm=no of breaths / number of minutes


How does the heart work? in general

The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen. (small circuit)

Blood returns to the heart

Then oxygenated blood pumped around body by left ventricle to pump blood to the organs. Blood gives O to body cells and takes their CO2 and returns to the heart to be pumped around again


What are the purpose of the hearts valves?

Has valves to make sure that blood flows in the right direction-they prevent it flowing backward


What are the order of chambers that blood is pumped through?

Right atrium - right ventricle-left atrium-left ventricle


What is the vena carva?

The vein that takes all deoxygenated blood from the body into the right atrium


What is the pulmonary artery?

Takes deoxygenatated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs to become oxygenated


What is the pulmonary vein?

Takes oxygenated blood from the lungs and goes into left atrium


What is the aorta?

Takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle and carries it to the body to be used


What is the coronary artery?

The artery that splits off from the aorta and surrounds the heart to give the heart oxygenated blood so that it can function


Describe the blood flow of the heart IN DETAIL

Blood flows into the two atria from the vena cava and the pulmonary vein

Atria contract pushing blood into the ventricles

ventricles contract, forcing the blood around the pulmonary artery and the aorta and out of the heart

blood flows to the organs through the arteries and returns through the veins

Atria fill and the whole cycle starts again


How is the heart rate controlled?

A small group of cells on the right atrium that act as a pace maker, they make an electrical impulse causing them to contract


Can heart rate be controlled artificially?

Yes, using a pacemaker with wires connected to the right atrium if the person has an irregular heartbeat to create electrical impulses.