Lungs, Pleura, and the Mechanics of Ventilation Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Lungs, Pleura, and the Mechanics of Ventilation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lungs, Pleura, and the Mechanics of Ventilation Deck (66):
1

The lungs are divided into bronchopulmonary segments (BP), how many BP are there for each lung?

10

2

Each BP segment is served by a

Segmental (tertiary) bronchus and a pulmonary artery and vein

3

Bronchopulmonary segments can also be projected to the

Chest wall

4

The trachea bifurcates at the level of the

Sternal angle (T4-T5)

5

More vertical and slightly larger in diameter

Right bronchus

6

The fetus is surrounded by excessive amniotic fluid. This is referred to as

Polyhydramnios

7

Does not allow the fetus to swallow amniotic fluid, causing polyhydramnios

Tracheoesophageal fistula

8

The developing lungs evaginate into the pleural cavities and become covered with

Pleura

9

The arrangement of the lung in the pleural cavities, the heart in the pericardial cavity, and the organs in the abdominal cavity is the

Same

10

The apex of the lungs is superior to the

Medial 1/3 of the clavicle

11

Parietal pleura turns back on itself and forms

Reflections

12

Some of these reflections are at very acute angles so that during quiet breathing the lungs do not enter these areas. This is called a

Recess

13

Since their is no lung tissue in these recesses, during quiet breathing, which two things touch?

Parietal pleura touch eachother

14

Boyle's law requires a constant

Teperature

15

Boyles law says that at a constant temperature

P1V1 = P2V2

16

This pressure-volume relationship governs

Normal and pathologic respiratory function

17

Allows all three dimensions of the thoracic cavity to be increased

Muscular action

18

The most important muscle for ventilation

Diaphragm

19

Contraction of the diaphragm increases the superior-inferior dimensions of the

Thoracic cavity

20

Pivot during respiration to increase the anterior-posterior dimensions of the thoracic cavity

Ribs 2-6

21

During this process, the anterior ends of ribs 2-6 move

Up and down

22

During this process, the sternum moves

Anteriorly

23

This is referred to as the "pump handle" movement caused by the

External intercostal muscles

24

Ribs 7-10 pivt on an axis through the head of the rib and sternocostal joint to increase the

Transverse Dimension of the thoracic cavity

25

This is the "bucket handle" movement and is caused by contraction of the

Diaphragm

26

Promotes the "bucket handle" movement of the ribs by acting as a platform for the diaphragm to push against

Lives

27

As the liver resists further inferior displacement, ribs 7-10 are pulled

Laterally by the diaphragm

28

At rest, the elastic recoil of the chest wall balances the elastic recoil of the

Lungs

29

At rest, the intrapleural pressure is ALWAYS

Negative

30

At rest, the intrapleural pressure is always negative because the lungs and chest wall are pulling in

Opposite directions

31

At rest, Alveolar pressure is equal to

Atmospheric pressure

32

During inspiration, force of muscular contraction exceeds elastic recoil, thus

The thoracic cavity enlarges

33

During inspiration, the intrapleural pressure is increasingly

Negative

34

What is the relationship between alveolar pressure and atmospheric pressure during inspiration?

Alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure

35

During inspiration, the force of diaphragm contraction exceeds the elastic recoil and resistance from

Abdominal organs

36

During expiration, inspiratory muscles

Relax

37

During expiration, what happens to the elastic recoil of the lungs?

It is increased

38

During expiration, the intrapleural pressure becomes

Less negative

39

During expiration, what is the relationship between alveolar and atmospheric pressure?

Alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure

40

During expiration what happens to intraabdominal pressure

It increases

41

Causes unilateral paralysis of the diaphragm

Unilateral phrenic nerve loss

42

Changes in intrathoracic pressure during ventilation affect venous return to the heart by the

Great veins

43

Lowers intraorthotic pressure which dilates the great veins and increases venous return to the heart

Deep breath

44

Provides more blood to carry more oxygen

Deep breath

45

Laughing and coughing are essentially

Forced exhalations

46

We know that expiration increases the

-impedes venous return

Intraorthotic pressure

47

Thus, the face flushes and the veins in the neck flush when we

Laugh or cough (due to increased intraorthotic pressure)

48

People with comprised ventilatory function may have trouble breathing when

Lying down

49

Overweight people have trouble breathing when lying down because

It is harder for the diaphragm to push down against the abdominal wall without gravity

50

An important protective mechanism for the lungs and bronchi

Cough reflex

51

Both follow bronchial tree into the lungs

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

52

POSTGANGLIONIC thoracic splanchnics that innervate smooth muscle and blood vessels of the bronchial tree

Lung sympathetics

53

PREGANGLIONIC fibers that synapse on small ganglia along the bronchial tree

Parasympathetic lung fibers

54

The POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC fibers then innervate

Smooth muscles of the bronchial tree

55

POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC fibers of the lungs innervate

Smooth muscle and blood vessels of bronchial tree

56

Afferent fibers follow the bronchial tree back to the CNS via the

Vagus nerve

57

The afferents from the lung that travel in the vagus nerve provide feedback about

Stretch, pain, and pressure in the pulmonary veins

58

Contributes to ANY function requiring an increase in either intraorthotic or intraabdominal pressure

Diaphragm

59

Participates in phonation, laughing, singing, coughing, sneezing, urination, defecation, and parturition

Diaphragm

60

When air enters the pleural cavity and the lung collapses due to loss of negative intrapleural pressure

Pneumothorax

61

In open pneumothorax, upon inspiration, atmospheric pressure on the injured side shifts the mediastinum to the intact side which

Compresses the lung on that side

62

When a flap of tissue acts as a valve, opening on inspiration and closing on expiration

Tension Pneumothorax

63

In a tension pneumothorax in the left side, the left lung will be collapse and the right lung will be compressed during

Inspiration AND expiration

64

Blood in the lung

Hemothorax

65

The head of the ribs articulates with

2 Vertebral Bodies

66

The tubercle of the rib articulates with the

Transverse processes

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