Flashcards in Lungs - vasculature, nerves, pulmonary embolism Deck (26):
what are the lungs supplied with?
deoxygenated blood by the paired pulmonary arteries
what happens once the blood has received oxygenation?
it leaves the lungs via four pulmonary veins (two for each lung)
what do the bronchi, lung roots, visceral pleura and supporting lung tissues require?
an extra nutritive blood supply
what delivers the extra nutritive blood supply to the bronchi, lung roots, visceral pleura and supporting lung tissues?
This is delivered by the bronchial arteries, which arise from the descending aorta.
where do the bronchial arteries arise from?
the descending aorta
what do the bronchial veins provide?
where does the right bronchial vein drain into?
where does the left bronchial vein drain into
the accessory hemiazygos vein
where are the nerves of the lungs derived from?
from the pulmonary plexuses
what do the nerves of the lungs feature?
They feature sympathetic, parasympathetic and visceral afferent fibres
where is parasympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus derived from?
Derived from the vagus nerve
what is the function of the parasympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus stimulate?
stimulate secretion from the bronchial glands, contraction of the bronchial smooth muscle, and vasodilation of the pulmonary vessels
where is the sympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus derived from?
Derived from the sympathetic trunks
what is the function of the sympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus?
They stimulate relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscle, and vasoconstriction of the pulmonary vessels
what is the function of the visceral afferent fibres?
Conduct pain impulses to the sensory ganglion of the vagus nerve
what is a pulmonary embolism?
the obstruction of a pulmonary artery by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body. The most common emboli are
what are the most common emboli?
what is a thrombus responsible for?
responsible for the majority of cases and usually arises in a distant vein
when do fat embolisms appear?
following a bone fracture or orthopaedic surgery
when does an air embolism appear?
following cannulation in the neck
what is the effect of a pulmonary embolism?
a reduction in lung perfusion
what does a reduction in lung perfusion result in?
results in decreased blood oxygenation, and the accumulation of blood in the right ventricle of the heart
what are clinical features of a pulmonary embolism?
dyspnoea, chest pain, cough, haemoptysis and tachypnoea
what is used to assess the probability of PE?
the Wells’ score
what are definitive treatment of PE?
involves anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy