Lungs - vasculature, nerves, pulmonary embolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lungs - vasculature, nerves, pulmonary embolism Deck (26):
1

what are the lungs supplied with?

deoxygenated blood by the paired pulmonary arteries

2

what happens once the blood has received oxygenation?

it leaves the lungs via four pulmonary veins (two for each lung)

3

what do the bronchi, lung roots, visceral pleura and supporting lung tissues require?

an extra nutritive blood supply

4

what delivers the extra nutritive blood supply to the bronchi, lung roots, visceral pleura and supporting lung tissues?

This is delivered by the bronchial arteries, which arise from the descending aorta.

5

where do the bronchial arteries arise from?

the descending aorta

6

what do the bronchial veins provide?

venous drainage

7

where does the right bronchial vein drain into?

azygos vein

8

where does the left bronchial vein drain into

the accessory hemiazygos vein

9

where are the nerves of the lungs derived from?

from the pulmonary plexuses

10

what do the nerves of the lungs feature?

They feature sympathetic, parasympathetic and visceral afferent fibres

11

where is parasympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus derived from?

Derived from the vagus nerve

12

what is the function of the parasympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus stimulate?

stimulate secretion from the bronchial glands, contraction of the bronchial smooth muscle, and vasodilation of the pulmonary vessels

13

where is the sympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus derived from?

Derived from the sympathetic trunks

14

what is the function of the sympathetic fibres of the pulmonary plexus?

They stimulate relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscle, and vasoconstriction of the pulmonary vessels

15

what is the function of the visceral afferent fibres?

Conduct pain impulses to the sensory ganglion of the vagus nerve

16

what is a pulmonary embolism?

the obstruction of a pulmonary artery by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body. The most common emboli are

17

what are the most common emboli?

Thrombus
Fat
Air

18

what is a thrombus responsible for?

responsible for the majority of cases and usually arises in a distant vein

19

when do fat embolisms appear?

following a bone fracture or orthopaedic surgery

20

when does an air embolism appear?

following cannulation in the neck

21

what is the effect of a pulmonary embolism?

a reduction in lung perfusion

22

what does a reduction in lung perfusion result in?

results in decreased blood oxygenation, and the accumulation of blood in the right ventricle of the heart

23

what are clinical features of a pulmonary embolism?

dyspnoea, chest pain, cough, haemoptysis and tachypnoea

24

what is used to assess the probability of PE?

the Wells’ score

25

what are definitive treatment of PE?

involves anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy

26

what do anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy do?

This reduces the size of the embolus, and prevents further clotting.