Lymph Nodes and Mucous Membranes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lymph Nodes and Mucous Membranes Deck (6)
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1

LNN

Methods
Inspection & palpation (incl. rectal)
Additional exams
-aspiration (FNA)
-biopsy
-excision
-extirpation
-X-ray, US (esp mesenteric Lnn, CT, sounding)

2

Examination of Lnn

1)Location & number of nodes + nodules
2)size >1,5x = suspicious=> give parameter/compare to something
3)shape: ellipsoidal/round/special (eq mandibular)
4)consistency: soft rubber/firm
5)structure: non-/homogenous (lobulated v normal)
6)painfulness
7)movability: unattached to the surrounding tissues/ no adhesion
8) surface: smooth or regular
9) skin above: temp, elasticity, intactness
10) compare corresponding Lnn on opposite sides

3

Lnn Car

Palpable:
1) mandibular/submandibular-always, in Fe don't confuse w/ salivary gl
2) prescapular- mainly dog
3) popliteal-both Ca & Fe
Only palapable w/ pathologically enlarged
4)retropharyngeal
5) parotid
6) axillary
7) superficial inguinal
8) mesenteric

4

Mucous membranes

Mucosa of interest:
1) conjunctiva
2) oral mm
3) nasal mm
4) anal mm
5) urogenital mm
Methods
1) inspection
2) palpation: capillary refill time
3) (smell)
Additional exams
-X-ray, contrast X-ray
-US
-endoscopy
-discharge/secretion: quantitative/ qualitative tests, microbiology, cytology, serology

5

MM examination

1) colour: pinkish, can be pigmented
-pale: anemia
-yellow-orange: icterus
-blue-purple: cyanotic/hypoxia
-cherry-red: CO poisoning
-dirty-red: intoxication
-grey-blue/livid: hypovolaemic shock
2) moisture: mucus, quantity, quality
3) membrane vessels: petechiae, haemorrhages, injected vessels (=inflammation)
4) surface: smoothness
lesions,
-papules, ulcers,
5) capillary refill time (<2 sec)

6

fluid deficit

IV deficit
-hypovolaemic shock
-low tissue O2 and E support
-diagnosable w/ HR, pulse, CRT, mm colour, temp & blood pressure
-impaired CO ( exclude cardiac failure)
-possible causes: blood loss, SIRS (= systemic inflammatory response syndrome), allergy, infection, pancreatitis, peritonitis

Interstitial/IC deficit:
Main cause= dehydration (possible: heat stroke, gastroenteritis, kidney failure, fever, diarrhea)
-diagnostics: mm moisture, skin turgor, eye position, BW, urine quantity & specific gravity