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Flashcards in LYMPHATIC Deck (87):
1

lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus
-does not circulate fluid to and from tissues
-carries fluid in one direction, from tissues to circulatory system
-most fluid returns to blood, some move into lymphatic capillaries to become lymph

lymphatic system

2

tiny, close-ended vessels consisting of simple squamous epithelium
-more permeable than blood capillaries because they lack a basement membrane
-its overlapping squamous cells act as valves (prevent backflow of fluid)
-present in most tissues except CNS, bone marrow, tissues without blood vessels (epidermis & cartilage)
-join to form lymphatic vessels

lymphatic capillaries

3

resemble small veins
-small LV have beaded appearance because they have one-way valves
-when compressed, valves prevent backward movement, causing lymph to move forward
-converge and empty into the blood at two locations:

lymphatic vessels

4

– tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus

LYMPHATIC ORGANS

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– lymphocytes and other cells

LYMPHATIC TISSUE

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form a protective ring of lymphatic tissue around the openings between the nasal and oral cavities and pharynx
-protect against pathogens and other potentially harmful material entering from the nose and mouth

tonsils

7

form interlaced network that holds the lymphocytes and other cells in place
-traps microorganisms and other items in the fluid when lymph or blood filters through lymphatic organs

reticular fiber

8

iginate from red bone marrow and are carried by blood to lymphatic organs
-divide and increase in number when the body is exposed to microorganisms or foreign substances

lymphocytes

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posterior opening of the oral cavity, “the tonsils”

PALATINE

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– near the internal opening, called adenoids when enlarged

PHARYNGEAL

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posterior surface of the tongue

3. Lingual

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rounded structures
-distributed along various lymphatic vessels
-where lymph passes before entering the blood

LYMPH NODES

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3 Superficial Aggregations of Lymph Nodes on each side of the body

1. Inguinal nodes – groin
2. Axillary nodes – axilla
3. Cervical nodes – neck

14

– dense CT surrounding each node

CAPSULE

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subdivide a lymph node into compartments containing lymphatic tissue and sinuses

Trabeculae

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dense aggregations of tissue

LYMPH ATIC NODULES

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spaces between lymphatic tissue containing macrophages

LYMPH ATIC sinuses

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– lymphatic nodules containing rapidly dividing lymphocytes

germinal; centers

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– clenched fist, left, superior corner of the abdominal cavity
-outer capsule of dense CT and some smooth muscle
-divided into compartments by trabeculae
-filters blood instead of lymph
-detect and respond to foreign substances in the blood & destroy worn-out rbc
-blood reservoir (used in emergency situations, little blood only)

spleen

20

part of spleen
lymphatic tissue surrounding arteries within the spleen

white pulp

21

– associated with veins
-a fibrous network filled with macrophages and RBC, enlarged capillaries connecting to veins

red pulp

22

-bilobed gland, triangular in shape
-in superior mediastinum
-each lobe surrounded by capsule
-divided into lobules by trabeculae
-site for maturation of T cells

thymus

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– near the capsule and trabeculae
-dark-staining areas formed by numerous lymphocytes

cortex

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– lighter-staining central portion with fewer lymphocytes

medulla

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-ability to resist damage from foreign substances, harmful chemicals and internal threats

IMMUNITY

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body recognizes and destroys certain foreign substances
-response is same each time the body is exposed

INNATE IMMUNITY

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– body recognizes and destroys foreign substances
-response improves each time the foreign substance is encountered

ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY

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ability of adaptive immunity to recognize a particular substance

SPECIFICITY

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ability of adaptive immunity to remember previous encounters with a particular substances

MEMORY

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INNATE IMMUNITY WHICH prevent microorganisms and chemicals from entering the body in 2 ways:

PHYSICAL BARRIERS

31

HOW PHYSICAL BARRIERS prevent microorganisms and chemicals from entering the body

1. Skin and mucous membrane form barriers
2. Tears, saliva, and urine was substances

32

-molecules responsible for many aspects of innate immunity

CHEMICAL MEDIATORS

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– group of approximately 20 proteins found in plasma
-normally, they circulate in blood in an inactive form
-activated by combining with foreign substances, such as parts of a bacterial cells
- activated by combining with antibodies
-once activation begins, a series of reactions results, in which complement protein activates the next
-once activated, certain complement proteins promote inflammation and phagocytosis and can directly lyse bacterial cells

COMPLEMENT

34

proteins that protect the body against viral infections
-produced when virus stimulate infected cells to produce interferons
-do not protect the cell that produces them
-bind to surface of neighboring cells, and stimulate them to produce antiviral proteins
-antiviral proteins prevent production of new viral nucleic acids and proteins
-some play a role in activating immune cells

INTERFERONS

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most important cellular components of immunity
-produced in red bone marrow & lymphatic tissue
-released into the blood
-attracted by chemicals released from microorganisms or damaged tissues (complement, leukotrienes, kinins, histamine)

WBC

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movement of WBC towards those chemicals

CHEMOTAXIS

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ingestion & destruction of particles by cells called phagocytES

phagocytosis

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small phagocytic cells
-first cells to enter infected tissues from blood in large numbers
-release chemical signals that increase inflammatory response by recruiting and activating other immune cells
-often die after phagocytizing single microorganism

neutrophil

39

monocytes that leave the blood, enter tissues, enlarge about fivefold
-dust cells (lungs), Kupffer cells (liver), microglia (CNS), Langerhan cells (skin)
-can ingest more and large items than neutrophils
-responsible for most of the phagocytic activity in late stages of infection
-cleans up dead neutrophils and other debris
-found in uninfected tissues to phagocytize mircroorganisms before they can replicate or cause damage; located at potential points

macrophage

40

monocytes and macrophages
-phagocytes with a single, unlobed nucleus

MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTIC SYSTEM

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derived from red bone marrow
-motile, WBC that can leave the blood and enter infected tissues

basophil

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derived from red bone marrow
-non-motile cells in CT, near capillaries
-like macrophages, located at potential points

mast cells

43


3. participate in inflammation associated with allergies and asthma

EOSINOPHILS –

44

type of lymphocyte produced in red bone marrow
-account for up to 15% of lymphocytes
-recognize classes of cells (tumor or virus-infected cells)

NATURAL KILLER (NK) CELLS

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-process of releasing chemical mediators and attracting phagocytes and other WBC
-continues until bacteria are destroyed


INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

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inflammatory response confined to specific area of the body


LOCAL INFLAMMATION

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inflammatory response generally distributed throughout the body
-also show the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation plus the ff:

SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

48

substances that stimulate adaptive immune responses

ANTIGENS

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2 GROUPS OF ANTIGENS

FOREIGN
SELF-ANTIGEN

50

ANTIGENS introduced from outside the body
-Ex: microorganisms

FOREIGN

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– overreaction of the immune system

ALLERGIC RXN

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– molecules the body produces to stimulate an immune system response
-response can be beneficial or harmful

SELF-ANTIGEN

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– self-antigens stimulate unwanted destruction of normal tissue

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

54

2 Types of Adaptive Immunity

ANTIBODY-MEDIATED
CELL-MEDIATED

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lymphocytes
produced in the blood, and trained in thymus

T cells

56

lymphocytes
trained in bone marrow

B cells

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*There are___ T cells for every ____ B cell.

5:1

58

small groups of identical B cells or T cells, formed during embryonic development
-derived from a single unique T cell or B cell
-each can respond to only a particular antigen
-response to self-antigen is suppressed because it could destroy the body’s own cells
-have identical antigen receptors

clones

59

For the adaptive response of B cells or T cells to be effective, the following must occur

1. Antigen recognition by lymphocytes
2. Proliferation of lymphocytes recognizing the antigen

60

– proteins of lymphocytes on their surface (B-cell receptors and T-cell receptors)
-binds only to a specific antigen

ANTIGEN RECEPTORS

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glycoproteins that have binding sites for antigens
-serving trays that hold and present a processed antigen

MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX(MHC) MOLECULES

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MHC on membranes of most nucleated cells

• MHC CLASS I –

63

MHC on membranes of antigen-presenting cells, B cells, lymphocytes

MHC CLASSII

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necessary to aid first signal in producing a response
-can be achieved by CYTOKINES

COSTIMULATION

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cytokine released by macrophages that can stimulate helper T cells

INTERLEUKIN - 1

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glycoproteins of helper T Cells
-help connect helper T cells to macrophage by binding to MHC Class II molecules
-also bound by virus that causes AIDS

CD4

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– glycoproteins of cytotoxic T cells
-helps connect cytotoxic T cells to cells displaying MHC Class I molecules

CD8

68

TYPE OF IMMUNITY -effective against extracellular antigens because antibodies are in body fluids

ANTIBODY MEDIATED

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proteins produced in response to an antigen
-Y-shaped molecules consisting of 4 polypeptide chains: 2 identical heavy chains & 2 identical light chains

ANTIBODIES

70

-are sometimes called gamma globulins because they are mostly found in gamma globulin part of plasma

ANTIBODIES

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-are sometimes called immunoglobulins because they globulins involved in immunity

ANTIBODIES

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PART OF ANTIBODY
– end of each arm of the antibody
-part that combines with antigen
-join only with a particular antigen

VARIABLE REGION

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PART OF ANTIBODY
rest of the antibody
-has several functions

CONSYTANT REGION

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EFFECT OF ANTIBODIES
occur when a single antibody binds to an antigen and inactivates the antigen
-or when many antigens are bound together and are inactivated by many antibodies

DIRECT

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EFFECT OF ANTIBODIES
– constant region of the antibody activates other mechanisms that destroy antigen, after antibody has attached to antigen via variable region

INDIREC

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TYPE OF RESPONSE
– results from the first exposure of a B cell to an antigen
-3-14 days to produce enough antibodies to be effective against antigen
-in the meantime, disease symptoms develop

PRIMARY RESPONSE

77

responsible for secondary response

MEMORY B CELLS

78

occurs when immune system is exposed to an antigen against which it has already produced a primary response
-antigen is quickly destroyed, no disease symptoms, person is immune
-persist for many years

MEMORY RESPONSE

79

-if they are short-lived, there would be repeated infections of same disease (common colds)
-provides better protection because:
1. time required to start producing antibodies is less
2. more plasma cells and antibodies are produced

MEMORY RESPONSE

80

TYPE OF IMMUNITY
-function of cytotoxic T cells
-most effective against microorganisms that live inside the body cells (virus and some bacteria)

CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

81

TYPE OF IMMUNITY
-when viruses infect cells, some viral proteins are broken down and become processed antigens combined with MHC Class I
-CT cells can distinguish infected cells because T-cell receptor can bind to MHC class I/viral antigen complex
-T cell receptor and complex signal for activating cytotoxic T cells

CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

82

-responsible for cell-mediated response
2 Main Effects:
1. Release cytokines – activate additional components of immune system
2. CT cells can come in contact with other cells and kill them

CYTOTOXIC T CELLS

83

TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
results from natural exposure to an antigen that stimulates IS to respond agains antigen
-individual develops symptoms of disease because individual is not immune during 1st exposure

ACTIVE NATURAL

84

TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
antigen (vaccine) is deliberately introduced into an individual to stimulate the IS (vaccination)

• ACTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

85

TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
– when antibodies are transferred from a mother to her child across the placenta before birth

PASSIVE NATURAL

86

TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
vaccinating an animal, animal’s IS acquires

PASSIVE ARTIFICIAL

87

consists of a part of microorganism (dead or altered)
-antigen has been changed so it will stimulate an immune response but will not call the disease symptoms

VACCINE

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