Flashcards in Lymphatic & Immune System Deck (68):
protein produced by B cells to destroy antigens
substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response
proteins in the blood that help antibodies kill their target
proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells and other cells to regulate the immune response
proteins that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes
lymphocyte that matures into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies; originate in bone marrow
proteins secreted by cytotoxic T cells to aid in antigen destruction (interferons and interleukins)
Cytotoxic T cells
lymphocyte that directly kills antigen
Helper T cell
lymphocyte that aids B cells and stimulates T cells (CD4)
antibodies such as IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen
antibody produced in the lab to attack antigens and destroy cells; useful in immunotherapy
found in breast milk, tears, saliva, respiratory mucus
plasma, higher in chronic conditions
tend to be higher in acute infections
Destruction of old erythrocytes by macrophages, filtration of microorganisms and other foreign material from the blood, activation of lymphocytes, storage of blood
lymphatic organ located in upper mediastinum, important role in ummunity, helps body to determine self/foreign, shrinks in size w/ age
resistance is present at birth; not dependant on prior antigen exposure. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes. Example is bacterial infection; WBC's respond immediately to intruding antigen
body's ability to recognize and remember specific antigens and immune response. Lymphocytes, immunoglobulins, maternal antibodies. Vaccines confer this.
Immune agents given to a patient
patients own immune system is stimulated to produce antibodies
tolerance process fails and immune cells react to normal cells resulting in a pathological condition. Ex) rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
caused by infection w/ the human retroviruses HIV-1 or 2 which are passed through sexual contact or contact w/ bodily fluids (blood, blood products, intrapartum or perinatally from mother to infant, breast milk). Cannot be passed through family contact or mosquitos etc. Small occupational risk of infection for health care workers. HIV virus destroys helper T cells (CD4), body is not able to fight infections well predisposing patients to opportunistic infections (Candidiasis, cryptococcal infection, cryptosporidiosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes, histoplasmosis, mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/MAI, pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis etc). HIV becomes AIDS when CD4 counts are <200. Asymptomatic in 10-60% of patients but signs/symptoms include; lymphadenopathy, fever, fatigue, night sweats, weight loss, headache, sore throat, rash, opportunistic infections. Treatment is highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) which includes reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Associated w/ Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma.
Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen; acquired on exposure to sensitizing agent & immune response follows on reexposure. Possible reactions vary.
Hypersensitivity or allergic state arising from genetic predisposition
Systemic allergic reaction causing hypotension, shock, respiratory distress, edema of the larynx
Malignant tumor of lymph nodes & lymph tissue, many forms depending on cell type
Malignant tumor of lymph tissue in spleen and lymph nodes. Biopsy identifies reed-sternberg cells. Signs/symptoms - lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, pyrexia, weakness, weight loss, anorexia. Treatment with local radiation or chemo, high cure rate. Stage 1) single lymph node or group of nodes. 2) Two or more sites on same side of the diaphragm, often involving mediastinum. 3) disease on both sides of diaphragm, may include spleen. 4) Widespread extralymphatic involvement (liver, bone marrow, lung, skin)
Follicular lymphoma and large cell lymphoma; primarily B-cells. Chemotherapy & radiation used for treatment.
Malignant proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Tumor composed of plasma cells w/ a high level of a specific immunoglobulin (monoclonal band), usually IgG. Notably not in the lymph nodes. 70% of pt's will have bone pain. Identified on plain radiographs. Disease stage influences survival.
Multiple myeloma resulting from IgM tumors
Malignant tumor of the thymus gland; 10% primary mediastinal neoplasm. 1/4 are malignant. Myasthenia gravis occurs in 1/2. Pt's present w/ cough, SOB, dysphagia, fever, chest pain, weight loss, anorexia. Surgery is treatment of choice.
CD4 cell count
measures # of CD4 helper-T cells, used to follow pt's w/ AIDS/HIV. Normal count between 500 & 1500.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test)
fundamental tool of clinical immunology, initial screen for HIV detection although western blot is the confirmatory test. Based on principle of antibody/antigen interaction these allow for easy visualization of results
method of determining the blood levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA immunoglobulins
Viral load test
Measures the amount of HIV virus in the bloodstream. Includes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) tests.
collection of interstitial fluid from obstruction of lymphatic vessels and nodes; can occur post lymphadenectomy and/or radiation to the area
Major sites of lymph node concentration
Cervical, axillary, mediastinal, mesenteric, paraaortic (lumbar), and inguinal
Right lymphatic duct (right side of the head and chest, smaller area) and thoracic duct (lower body & left side of the head)
Type of adaptive immunity involving B lymphocytes producing antibodies to specific antigens
Type of adaptive immunity involving T lymphocytes including CD8/cytotoxic T cells, CD4/Helper T cells, and suppressor/regulatory T cells
Mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx
Body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that damage tissues and organs. This includes natural and adaptive immunity. Comes from the latin word immunis meaning exempt or protected from.
Use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat or prevent disease
Fluid in the spaces between cells, this fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries
Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body. Latin lympha means clear spring water.
Tiniest lymphatic vessels
Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland
Collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels; contains cells (lymphocytes & macrophages) that fight infection
Carrier of lymph throughout the body; lymphatic vessels empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest
Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues of the body.
To eat or swallow
Lymphocyte that secretes antibodies, matures from B lymphocytes
Suppressor T cell
Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B & T cells, also called a Treg/or regulatory T cell
The ability of T lymphocytes to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as self or friendly. Once tolerance is established the immune system will not react against the body.
Masses of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx
Poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants
Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that possesses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection.
Weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease