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Flashcards in Lymphatic System Deck (77):
0

Excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels

Lymph

1

2 semi-independent parts of the lymphatic system

Lymphatic system
Lymphoid tissues & organs

2

Functions of lymphatic system

Transports fluid back to blood
Body defense & resistance to disease

3

Materials returned to blood

Water
Blood
Proteins

4

Small spherical or oval cell, with a large rounded nucleus or slightly indented on one side, & surrounded by a narrow agranular cytoplasm

Lymphocytes

5

Memory cells

T & B lymphocytes

6

Classification of lymphatic tissue

Loose lymphatic tissue
Dense lymphatic tissue
Nodular lymphatic tissue

7

The only primary lymphatic organ

Thymus gland

8

First organ to become lymphoid during embryonic life

Thymus gland

9

Principal cellular constituents of thymus with reticular cells & a smaller number of macrophages

Lymphocytes (thymocytes)

10

Active site of lymphocyte production

Thymic cortex

11

Largest lymphoid organ in the body

Spleen

12

Immune cells located diffusely in the digestive, respiratory, or urogenital mucosae comprise what is collectively known as ____

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)

13

Immunoglobulins produced by plasma cells after a progenitor B cell is activated by a specific antigen and rearranges its immunoglobulin genes so that the antibody matches the antigen

Antibodies

14

Regions of macromolecules, usually proteins, that are recognized by lymphocytes to elicit a specific immune response against them

Antigens

15

Lower pH locally in specific regions go kill entering microorganisms directly or inhibit their growth

Hydrochloric acud & organic acid

16

Short cationic peptides produced by neutrophils & various epithelial cells that kill bacteria by disrupting the cell walls

Defensins

17

An enzyme made by neutrophils & cells of epithelial barriers, which hydrolyzes bacterial cell wall components, killing those cells

Lysozyme

18

Sustem of proteins in blood plasma, mucus, & macrophages that react with bacterial surface components to aid removal of bacteria

Complement

19

Paracrine factors from leukocytes & virus-infected cells that signal NK cells yo kill such cells & adjacent cells to resist viral infection

Interferons

20

Diverse group of peptides & glycoproteins, usually with low molecular masses & a paracrine mode of action. They coordinate cell activities in the innate & adaptive immune responses

Cytokines

21

Directed cell movements toward & cell accumulation at sites of inflammation

Chemotaxis

22

A molecule that is refognized by cells of the adaptive immune system

Antigen

23

Anyigenic determinants

Epitopes

24

A glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin family that interacts specifically with an antigenic determinant

Antibody

25

Lymphoctes are primarily in charge of eliminating the antigen

Cellular response

26

Antibodies are primarily responsible for the response

Humoral

27

Classes of antibodies

Immunoglobulins

IgG
IgA
IgM
IgE
IgD

28

The most effective antibody class in activating the complement system

IgM bound to antigen

29

This immunoglobulin is manily produced in an initial response to an antigen

IgG

30

Immunoglobulin present in almost all exocrine secretions

IgA

31

Most abundant class of representing 75-85% of the immunoglobulin in blood. This confers passive immunity against certain infections until the NB's own adaptive immunity system is acquired

IgG

32

Immunoglobulins active in allergic reeaction

IgE

33

Half-life of IgG

>3 weeks

34

The least abundant immunoglobulin in plasma, also the least understood class of antibody

IgD

35

Harmful materials that enter lymph vessels

Bacteria
Viruses
Cancer cells
Cell debris

36

Theses structures are designed to protect the internal environment from invasion & damage by foreign substances, cells or microorganism

Lymphatic tissues
Lymphoid organs

37

Large lymphoctes are also called ____

Lymphoblast cells

38

A central pale staining portion of a lymphatic nodule

Germinal center

39

Also know as secondary nodules

Germinal center of flemming

40

Functions of secondary nodules

Site of active production of lymphocytes
Trap antigen in oresence of antibody (antigen-antibody complex)
Functional differentiation of B lymphocytes
R/t humoral immune responses
R/t long term memory response of IgG antibody

41

Peripheral dark staining portion of lymphatic nodules

Corona

42

Encapsulated lymphatic tissues

Lymphatic organs

43

This gland attains it greatest relative weight at the end of fetal life

Thymus gland

44

The parenchyma of thymus gland is formed of ____ & ____

Thymic cortex
Thymic medulla

45

Characteristic feature of the thymus. Spherical or oval bodies composed of concentrically arranged cells of epithelial reticular cells with an acidophilic central area

Thymic corpuscles or Hassl's bodies

46

Supply the lymphocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs

Thymus gland

47

Encapsulated spheroid or kidney-shaped organs along the course of lymphatic vessels

Lymph nodes

48

Functions of the lymph node

Filtration of lymph
Provides lymoh with lymphocytes
Immunological defense of the body

49

Immunological defense of the body

Humoral immune response
Cellular immune response

50

Binding of antigen-binding site of an antibody with antigen causes what?

Neutralization
Agglutination
Precipitation

51

Exposed Fc portion following antigen binding by antibody promotes what?

Complemet fixation
Opsonization
Activation of NK cells

52

Property of B lymphocytes and plasma cells

Humoral immune response

53

Parenchyma of the spleen is composed of ___ & ____

White & red pulp

54

Site where blood-borne cells & particulate matter first contact the splenic parenchyma

Marginal zone of the spleen

55

Site where the lymphocytes of the recirculating pool leaves the blood of the sinuses to enter PALS

marginal zone of the spleen

56

Theory of splenic circulation:

Capillaries open directly into the spaces among the reticular cells of the splenic cords. Blood gradually filters into the venous sinuses

Open circulation theory

57

Theory of splenic circulation:

Capillaries communicate directly with the lumen of the venous sinuses

Closed circulation theory

58

Theory of splenic circulation:

Both types of circulation are present at the same time

Comprise theory

59

Functions of the spleen

Graveyard for worn out RBC
reservoir of RBC
Formation of ymphocytes
Removal of particulate matters in circulation
Immune responses to bacteria, viruses & foreign macromolecules

60

Paired oval shaped bodies located in the oropharynx between the glossopalatine & pharyngeal arches

Palatine tonsils

61

Defensive cells

Phagocytes
Natural killer cells

62

Surface membrane barriers

First line of defense

63

Inflammatory response

Second line of defense

64

This response is trigged when body tissues are injured

Inflammatory response (2nd line of defense)

65

5 cardinal sogns of inflammation

Rubor
Calor
Tumor
Dolor
Functio lasea

66

Functions of the inflammatory response

Prevents spread of damaging agents
Disposes of cell debris & pathogens
Sets the stage for repair

67

Secreted proteins of virus-infected cells

Interferons

68

Third line of defense

Specific defense

69

Any substance capable of exciting the immune system & provoking an immune response

Antigens

70

Thses cells originate from hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow

Lymphocytes

71

Antibodies are obtained fro, someone else
Immunological memory does not occur
Protection provided by "borrowed antibodies"

Passive immunity

72

Antibodies prepared for clinical testing or diagnostic services
Produced from descendants of a single cell line

Monoclonal antibodies

73

Soluble proteins secreted by B cells (plasma cells)

Antibodies - immunglobulins

74

Ways in which Antibodies inactivate antigens

Complement fixation
Neutralization
Agglutination
Precipitation

75

Type of antigen presenting cell which expresses high levels of both class I & II MHC proteins

Thymic interdigitating cell

76

Organ where self-reactive T cells are removed, preventing the development of autoimmunity

Thymus