Lymphatics&VenousDrainage_MSB Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lymphatics&VenousDrainage_MSB Deck (60):
1

What does lymphatic system do?

Lymphatic system drain tissue fluid, plasma proteins & cellular debris back into the blood stream

2

What does lymphatic system play a role in?

Role in immune defence

3

What is the lymph filtered by and where is it directed to?

Lymph is filtered by lymph nodes & directed into the venous system

4

Where is the lymphatic plexuses found?

Lymphatic plexuses around hand

5

Where does the superficial lymphatic vessels of upper limb initially arise from?

From lymphatic plexus in the hand

6

When the superficial lymphatic vessels of upper limb ascend, what does does it ascend in the arm adjacent to?

To the major superficial veins: basilic and cephalic veins

7

What does the deep lymphatic vessels of the upper limb follow?

The major deep veins

8

What is the function of the deep lymphatic vessel?

Drain lymph from joint capsules, periosteum, tendons and muscle

9

Name the Axillary Lymph Nodes

1) Pectoral (anterior)
2) Subscapular (posterior)
3) Humeral (lateral)
4) Central
5) Apical

10

What are the numbers of the lymph node and where are the pectoral (anterior) axillary lymph nodes found?

3 - 5 nodes
in the medial wall of the axilla

11

What are the numbers of the lymph node and Where are the subscapular (posterior) axillary lymph nodes found?

6 - 7 nodes
along the posterior axillary fold

12

What are the numbers of the lymph node and Where are the humeral (lateral) axillary lymph nodes found?

4 - 6 nodes
located in the lateral wall of the axilla

13

What are the numbers of the lymph node and Where are the central axillary lymph nodes found?

3 - 4 large nodes
in fat at base of the axilla

14

Where are the apical axillary lymph nodes found?

located in the apex of the axilla at lateral border of 1st rib

15

What does the venous system of the upper limb do?

Drains deoxygenated blood from the arm, forearm and hand

16

What is the venous system of the upper limb divided into?

Into the superficial veins and the deep veins

17

The perforating veins of the venous system of the upper limb runs between what?

Runs between deep and superficial veins connecting the two systems

18

What is the venous system of upper limb made of?

1) Palmar digital veins
2) Dorsal Venous Plexus

19

Name the venous system of upper limb

1) Basilic Vein (medial)
2) Cephalic Vein (lateral)
3) Median Cubital Vein
4) Axillary vein
5) Subclavian Vein

20

Which are superficial veins of the dorsal venous network of hand?

1) Basilic Vein (medial)
2) Cephalic Vein (lateral)
3) Median Cubital Vein
4) Axillary vein
5) Subclavian Vein

21

What is the ORIGIN of the Cephalic vein?

Lateral side of dorsal venous plexus of hand

22

Where is the TERMINATION of the Cephalic vein?

Axillary vein

23

What is the ORIGIN of the Basilic vein?

Medial side of dorsal venous plexus of hand

24

Where is the TERMINATION of the Basilic vein?

Unites with paired brachial veins to continue as Axillary vein

25

Where is the ORIGIN of the Median Cubital vein?

Cephalic vein near cubital fossa

26

Where is the TERMINATION of Median Cubital vein?

Basilic vein

27

Where does the Axillary Vein located?

Lies medial to axillary artery in the axilla

28

What does the Axillary sheath do?

Encloses axillary vein, artery and brachial plexus cords

29

Where does the cephalic vein arise fro?

From the dorsal venous network of the hand

30

How does the cephalic vein ascend?

Ascends anterolaterally throughout upper limb

31

At the elbow, how does the cephalic vein pass?

Passes anteriorly

32

At the shoulder, how does the cephalic vein pass?

The cephalic vein travels in the Deltopectoral groove

33

What is the Deltopectoral groove?

Indentation between the deltoid and pec. major muscles

34

Where does the cephalic vein enter?

Enter axillary region via the clavipectoral triangle

35

How does the Cephalic vein terminate?

Terminates within the axilla by joining the axillary vein

36

Where does the Cephalic vein pass through?

Elbow
Shoulder

37

What is the clavipectoral triangle also known as?

Deltopectoral triangle

38

What is the clavipectoral triangle anatomical space bounded by?

1) Superior border of Pec. Major
2) Anterior border of Deltoid
3) Clavicle

39

What does the Clavipectoral triangle contain?

1) Cephalic vein
2) Deltopectoral fascia
3) Deltoid branch of thoracoacromial artery

40

Where does the basilic vein arise from?

From the dorsal venous network of hand

41

How does the basilic vein travel?

1) Ascends the Medial aspect of upper limb
2) Moves deep into the arm

42

How does the basilic vein terminate?

By uniting with the paired brachial veins to continue as the Axillary vein

43

How is the Median Cubital vein formed?

At the elbow, the cephalic and basilic veins are connected by the median cubital vein

44

What is the axillary vein a continuation of?

Basilic vein (same borders as axillary artery in reverse)

45

Where does the axillary vein lie?

Lies medial to axillary artery in the axilla

46

What happens when the cephalic vein passes in Deltopectoral groove

Drains into axillary vein in the artery

47

Where are the deep veins found?

Underneath deep facia of upper limb

48

What are the brachial veins?

Large paired veins

49

Where are the brachial veins situated?

Situated either side of brachial artery

50

What does pulsations of brachial artery do?

Aid venous return

51

What are another name of Brachial veins?

Venae Comitantes

52

What happens when you have a lymphogenic spread of breast cancer?

In breast cancer, the axillary lymph nodes may be biopsied or removed (axillary clearance) to prevent metastatic growth

53

What is subclavian vein used for in clinical?

for central line placement to administer nutritional and medication fluids

54

Where does venipuncture take place?

Median cubital vein

55

What is venous cutdown?

- emergency procedure in which the vein is exposed surgically and then a cannula is inserted into the vein under direct vision.
- done when other techniques and equipment are unavailable in critical trauma patients

56

When is venous cutdown used?

- Largely replaced by alternative methods of venous access in trauma medicine
- It is used to get vascular access in trauma and hypovolemic shock patients when peripheral cannulation is difficult or impossible.

57

What is a common site for venous cutdown?

1) Basilic vein above the elbow
2) Cephalic vein below elbow

58

Why is the Basilic vein above the elbow used for venous cutdown?

Predictable anatomical location

59

Where is the basilic vein above the elbow found for venous cutdown?

Consistently found 2 cm above and 2 - 3 cm lateral to medial epicondyle on anterior surface of upper arm

60

How is Venous cutdown done? (Step by step - 11 steps)

1) Venous tourniquet placed proximal to cut down site
2) Carefully identify cut down site and inject local anaesthetic along intended incision line if patient is conscious
3) Make transverse incision through skin avoiding damage to underlying skin
4) Spread skin (curved haemostat) and isolate vein lying at right angle to line of incision
5) Place 2 ligatures (threads or suture material under vein proximally and distally)
6) Tie off distal vein
7) Between the 2 ligatures carefully cut halfway through vein
8) Slip IV catheter through opening aiming into proximal side towards heart
9) Secure by tying proximal ligature
10) Release tourniquet
11) Suture skin together to hold in position