Flashcards in MA 3110 STATS CHAPTER 2 Deck (22):

1

## Lower class limits

### The smalls numbers that can belong to the different classes.

2

## Upper class limits

### The largest numbers that can belong to the different classes.

3

## Class boundaries

### The numbers used to separate the classes, but without the gaps created by class limits.

4

## Class midpoints

### The values in the middle of the classes. Each is found by adding the lower class limit to the upper class limit and diving the sum by 2.

5

## Class width

### The difference between two consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive lower class boundaries in a frequency distribution.

6

## Class width FORMULA

### maximum data value MINUS (-) (minimum data value) divided (/) number of classes

7

## Relative frequency distribution

### The frequency of a class is replaced with a proportion or percentage frequency (%)

8

## Relative frequency FORMULA

### class frequency divided (/) sum of all frequencies

9

## Percentage frequency FORMULA

### class frequency divided (/) sum of all frequencies times (X) 100%

10

## Histogram

### A graph consisting of bars of equal width drawn adjacent to each other (without gaps). The horizontal scale represents classes of quantitative data values and the vertical scale represents frequencies. The heights of the bars correspond to the frequency values.

11

## Relative Frequency Histogram

### Has the same shape and horizontal scale of a histogram but the vertical scale is marked with relative frequencies (as percentages or proportions) instead of actual frequencies.

12

## Normal Distribution

###
Is a bell shape with characteristics as:

1) The frequencies increase to a maximum, and the decrease

2) Symmetry, with the left half of the graph roughly a mirror image of the right half.

13

## Frequency polygon

### Uses line segments connected to points located directly above class midpoint values.

14

## Ogive

### Involves cumulative frequencies. Is a line graph that depicts cumulative frequencies and uses class boundaries along the horizontal scale, and cumulative frequencies along the vertical scale.

15

## Ogive

16

## Stemplots (stem-and-leaf plot)

### Represents quantitative data by separating each value into two parts: the stem (leftmost digit) and the leaf (rightmost digit).

17

## Bar graph

### Uses bars of equal width to show frequencies of categories of qualitative data. The vertical scale represents frequencies or relative frequencies. The horizontal scale identifies the different categories of qualitative data.

18

## Pareto Chart

### A bar graph for qualitative data, with the added stipulation that the bars are arranged in defending order accruing to frequencies. The vertical scale represents frequencies or relative frequencies. The horizontal scale identifies the different categories of qualitative categories of qualitative data.

19

## Pie chart

### A graph that depicts qualitative data as slices of a cycles, in which the size of each slice is proportional to the frequency count for the category.

20

## Scatterplot (Scatter diagram)

### a plot of paired (x,y) quantitative data with a horizontal x-axis and y-axis. The horizontal axis is used for the first (x) variable, and the vertical axis is used for the second variable.

21

## Scatterplot (Scatter diagram)

22