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Flashcards in Maciej Ch13 + 14 Maciej Deck (34):
1

What is the definition of selective breeding?

-The artificial selection process by which humans breed plants and animals for particular genetic characteristics

-Humans have been doing this for thousands of years since first breeding food crops and domesticated animals

2

Name the steps in selective breeding

1) Choose 2 parents with he desired characteristics
2) Breed the 2 parents
3) From the offspring choose those with desired characteristics and breed it with another animal with the desired characteristic
4) Repeat this for many generations until all the offspring have the desired characteristic

3

Name some advantages of selective breeeding

- Can produce animals and plants with desirable characteristics
- Can produce new varieties in species (e.g. seedless grapes)
- Increased profits // disease resistant plants
- Can domesticate animals

4

What is genetic variation? Give an example of a characteristic that is affected by genetics

-The differences in organisms that come as a result of differences in the organisms genes
-Eye colour

5

What is environmental variation? Give an example of a characteristic affected by environmental factors

-Differences in organisms that come as a result of the environment that the said organism was bought up in
-Skin colour (also genetic but depending on whether the conditions of the environment are sunny or not, skin can darken)

6

What is a genetic mutation?

A permanent alteration in the DNA sequence

7

What is survival of the fittest

The fact that organisms better suited to their environment are more likely to survive and consequently breed, causing a continuation in their species

8

How does evolution by natural selection take place ?

Organisms with characteristics that give it an advantage in surviving in its environment are more likely to survive and consequently pass on their characteristics to their offspring, the rest will not be as likely and die or be less likely to breed, this will result in a development of specific characteristics in a species, after many years eventually the species will change to the point where organisms of that species will no longer be able to breed with other members, meaning it has now become a new species

9

What is extinction ?

The permanent loss of all members of a species

10

Define species

A group of organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring

11

Define Speciation

The formation of a new species due to evolution. May cause extinction of species, E.g. early hominids

12

What evidence is there for evolution

Fossil records, antibacterial resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA -methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

13

What are fossils ?

The 'remain' of organisms from millions of years ago, which are found in rocks

14

How does genetic engineering

Certain enzymes can cut pieces of DNA from one organism, and join them into a gap in the DNA of another organism. This means that the new organism with the inserted genes has the genetic information for one or more new characteristics. For example, the organism might produce a useful substance, or be able to carry out a new function

15

How are fossils formed ?

-Organism is covered in sediment
-Soft parts decay or are eaten
-The bones or hard points do not decay
-So minerals enter the bones and are therefore preserved
-Layers of sediment get compressed over time forming sedimentary rocks
-Conditions for decay may be absent e.g. no oxygen

16

What are some causes of extinction ?

Extinction is almost always caused by a change in the environment:
-Single catastrophic event such as an asteroid collision
-New predators being introduced to the environment where the prey is not suitably adapted to survive with the predator present
-A new disease coming in as a result of transmission of mutation, especially if the species in danger of extinction is closely grouped e.g. on an island

17

What is a mutation ?

A random change in the DNA sequence of an organim

18

How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics

-A group of bacteria is affected by antibiotics
-A mutation in one of the bacteria will let it survive
-That bacteria then replicates by binary fission

19

What are fossils ?

The 'remain' of organisms from millions of years ago, which are found in rocks

20

How does genetic engineering

Certain enzymes can cut pieces of DNA from one organism, and join them into a gap in the DNA of another organism. This means that the new organism with the inserted genes has the genetic information for one or more new characteristics. For example, the organism might produce a useful substance, or be able to carry out a new function

21

How are fossils formed ?

-Organism is covered in sediment
-Soft parts decay or are eaten
-The bones or hard points do not decay
-So minerals enter the bones and are therefore preserved
-Layers of sediment get compressed over time forming sedimentary rocks
-Conditions for decay may be absent e.g. no oxygen

22

What are some causes of extinction ?

Extinction is almost always caused by a change in the environment:
-Single catastrophic event such as an asteroid collision
-New predators being introduced to the environment where the prey is not suitably adapted to survive with the predator present
-A new disease coming in as a result of transmission of mutation, especially if the species in danger of extinction is closely grouped e.g. on an island

23

What is a mutation ?

A random change in the DNA sequence of an organim

24

How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics

-A group of bacteria is affected by antibiotics
-A mutation in one of the bacteria will let it survive
-That bacteria then replicates by binary fission

25

What is the Archaea ?

Archaea is a domain in the new classification system. It is a primitive form of bacteria and it contains one kingdom.

26

What is the Archaebacteria ?

Archaebacteria is the only kingdom of the Archaea. Archaebacteria are primitive forms of bacteria which include extremophiles

27

What is Bacteria ?

Bacteria is a domain in the new classification system. These are "true bacteria" and have only one kingdom

28

What are Eubacteria ?

Eubacteria is the only kingdom in the domain of bacteria. These are "true bacteria", cyanobacteria and other bacteria like organisms that can photosynthesise.

29

What are Eukaryota ?

Eukaryota is the domain which in includes all cellular organisms which contain a nucleus. There are 4 kingdoms in the Eukaryota domain

30

What is the Protista ?

Protista is a kingdom in the Eukaryota domain. They are uni-cellular mostly apart from some multi-cellular algae. They are invertebrates and not classified as an animal or plant

31

What are Fungi ?

Fungi is a kingdom in the Eukaryota. They have chitin cell walls, form spores and do not photosynthesise

32

What are plants ?

Plants is a kingdom in the Eukaryota domain. They have a cellulose cell wall, many cells and chloroplasts for photosynthesise

33

What are Animals ?

Animals is a kingdom in the Eukaryota domain. They have animal cells, cannot make their own food, have many cells and are typically more mobile than other organisms

34

What are extremophiles ?

Organisms that can survive in the most extreme conditions