Flashcards in Macronutrients Deck (93):
What are the three macronutrients?
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
What is a macronutrient?
Nutrients that are needed in large amounts
What are four functions of protein?
Growth and repair of all body cells and tissues
Repair and maintenance of all body issues
Making hormones, enzymes and antibodies
Providing an alternative energy source
What are proteins?
Big molecules that form long chains
What are proteins made of?
How many different proteins can be found in plants and animals?
What are the proteins that we get from food called?
Essential amino acids
Foods that contain all of the essential amino acids are called what?
High biological value foods
Give three sources of HBV proteins
Foods that are missing one or more essential amino acids are called what?
Low biological value foods
Name three source of LBV proteins
What is meant by protein complementation?
A complete and incomplete protein are combined to get all of the essential amino acids. The dish overall is HBV, and it is generally cheaper
Which of these foods is an example of protein complementation?
A) Cheese on toast
B) Apricot jam on toast
C) Beans on toast
D) Poached egg on toast
C - Beans on toast
What alternative protein source is Quorn made from?
Name two uses of soya beans
Textured vegetable protein (TVP)
What is the effect of having too much protein in your diet?
Harmful to the kidneys and liver
Any unused protein will be stored as fat
Could therefore cause health problems such as obesity, CHD etc.
What is the condition causes by a deficiency of protein?
Give two symptoms of Kwashiorkor
Why do most teenage boys need more protein than teenage girls?
Teenage boys often grow taller and have a higher muscle mass than teenage girls
They therefore need this extra energy to do this and to help them grow
What is Mycroprotein made from
A type of fungus which is grown in special conditions
What is quinoa
Tiny bean shaped seeds
It is a HBV protein
What are two functions of carbohydrates?
'Protein sparer' which allows protein to do other jobs like making hormones
Main source of energy in the body
What are the three types of carbohydrate?
What type of carbohydrate is a simple carbohydrate?
What types of carbohydrates are complex carbohydrates?
What is the scientific name for a simple sugar?
Identify two single sugars:
What is the scientific name for a double sugar?
Identify two double sugars
Sugar that is added to food or found outside of the cell wall is called what?
A free sugar
Natural sugar found in fruit and vegetables are called what?
A fruit sugar
Sugar found in foods that you would not expect them to be in are called what?
What could happen as a result of a diet high in free sugars?
Tooth decay, obesity risk, CHD
What is the scientific name for starch?
Where is starch usually found?
Name the starch usually found naturally in fruits
Name the starch that is usually stored in the liver and muscle as an energy reserve
__% of total food energy should come from carbohydrates
__% of your total energy should come from starchy carbohydrates, milk sugars and free sugars
__% of your total energy should come from free sugars
What is the scientific name for dietary fibre?
Identify two functions of dietary fibre
Maintain healthy bowel system
Producing soluble fibre
How much dietary fibre should an adult consume a day?
What do artificial sweeteners do?
Add sweetness without increasing the energy content
What does pectin do?
Forms a gel in water - helps products like jam to set
Is thought to reduce cholesterol in the blood
What are some symptoms of a deficiency in carbohydrates?
Causes by a lack of energy
Causes weight loss - body will start to use fat stores
Severe weakness - if fat stores are depleted, then protein sources will be used
What are some symptoms of an excess of carbohydrates?
If carbohydrates are not used, then they are converted into fat, which could lead to obesity
Obesity can lead to other health issues such as having an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
Why is dietary fibre important?
It cannot be broken down by the body
As it passes through the intestine it absorbs water and increases in bulk
What are the two types of fibre?
What are two functions of soluble fibre?
Slows digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
Helps control blood sugars (e.g. insulin)
Name two sources of soluble fibre
Vegetables such as potatoes, broccoli and carrots
What are two functions of insoluble fibre?
Helps food to pass through the intestines quickly
Excess of dietary fibre stops the absorption of which two minerals?
Iron and calcium
What could a deficiency in dietary fibre cause?
It could increase the chance of developing bowel problems such as constipation
What is the dietary reference value of dietary fibre for adults and children/
Adults - 30g
Children need slightly less due to their size
What is the scientific name for fat?
Give two functions of fats
Insulates the body
Backup source of energy when carbohydrates are depleted
What texture do fats provide in food?
Crumbly, crisp and moist
Give two sources of visible fat
Marbled fat on meat
Butter on bread
Give two sources of invisible fat
What is emulsion?
Fat droplets distributed in water
Give three examples of animal fat
Give three examples of vegetable fat
Vegetable and plant oils
What is hydrogenation?
A process when vegetable oils are 'hardened' to make them solid at room temperature
What is formed when oil is hydrogenated?
What health condition are trans-fats supposed to cause?
What is a fat molecule made up of?
2 fatty acids
Describe the chemical structure of saturated fats
Single bonds between all carbon atoms
All bonds saturated (full) with hydrogen
Describe the chemical structure of unsaturated fats
Some hydrogen atoms are missing
Creates an 'unsaturated molecule' and a double bond between two carbon atoms
Liquid at room temerature
Give two sources of saturated fats
Animal products - e.g. meat
Some vegetable and plant oils - e.g. sunflower
Give two sources of unsaturated fats
Nuts and seeds
How does saturated fat supposedly affect your health?
Linked to heart disease
These foods often contain high amounts of cholesterol
Most people eat too much
How does unsaturated fat supposedly affect your health?
Research suggests that it is healthier than saturated fat
Lower blood cholesterol in foods
Reduced risk of a heart attack
What are the two types of unsaturated fats?
Give two examples of monounsaturated fats
Describe the structure of monounsaturated fats
They have one double bond
Give two examples of polyunsaturated fats
Describe the structure of polyunsaturated fats
Two or more double bonds
What are the two essential fatty acids?
Omega 3 and omega 6
What is the function of essential fatty acids?
They are vital for the proper functioning of the brain, heart and development of the nervous system
Give two sources of omega 3
Green leafy vegetables
Give two sources of omega 6
What type of unsaturated fat are omega 3 and omega 6
What is cholesterol?
A fatty substance needed for normal functioning of the body
Essential part of cell membranes
How does cholesterol help fats?
It helps the body digest fats
Cholesterol levels rise when food containing which type of fat is eaten?
What are lipoproteins?
Proteins that carry cholesterol around the body
What are the two types of lipoproteins?
Low density lipoproteins (LDL)
High density lipoproteins (HDL)
What is the result of having too much bad cholesterol and saturated fat?
Build up in cholesterol and heart disease
What is the dietary reference value for fats?
35% maximum food energy
11% from saturated
1-2% from essential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6)
How much fat does the average person consume?
42% maximum of food energy
What does having too much saturated fat cause?
An increase in LDL (Low density lipoprotein) levels
Increases the risk of a heart attack