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Flashcards in Macronutrients Deck (93):
1

What are the three macronutrients?

Carbohydrates, fats and proteins

2

What is a macronutrient?

Nutrients that are needed in large amounts

3

What are four functions of protein?

Growth and repair of all body cells and tissues

Repair and maintenance of all body issues

Making hormones, enzymes and antibodies

Providing an alternative energy source

4

What are proteins?

Big molecules that form long chains

5

What are proteins made of?

Amino acids

6

How many different proteins can be found in plants and animals?

20

7

What are the proteins that we get from food called?

Essential amino acids

8

Foods that contain all of the essential amino acids are called what?

High biological value foods

9

Give three sources of HBV proteins

Tofu
Poultry
Dairy

10

Foods that are missing one or more essential amino acids are called what?

Low biological value foods

11

Name three source of LBV proteins

Beans
Pulses
Quorn

12

What is meant by protein complementation?

A complete and incomplete protein are combined to get all of the essential amino acids. The dish overall is HBV, and it is generally cheaper

13

Which of these foods is an example of protein complementation?

A) Cheese on toast
B) Apricot jam on toast
C) Beans on toast
D) Poached egg on toast

C - Beans on toast

14

What alternative protein source is Quorn made from?

Mycroprotein

15

Name two uses of soya beans

Textured vegetable protein (TVP)
Tofu

16

What is the effect of having too much protein in your diet?

Harmful to the kidneys and liver
Any unused protein will be stored as fat
Could therefore cause health problems such as obesity, CHD etc.

17

What is the condition causes by a deficiency of protein?

Kwashiorkor

18

Give two symptoms of Kwashiorkor

Bloated stomachs
Brittle bones

19

Why do most teenage boys need more protein than teenage girls?

Teenage boys often grow taller and have a higher muscle mass than teenage girls
They therefore need this extra energy to do this and to help them grow

20

What is Mycroprotein made from

A type of fungus which is grown in special conditions

21

What is quinoa

Tiny bean shaped seeds
It is a HBV protein

22

What are two functions of carbohydrates?

'Protein sparer' which allows protein to do other jobs like making hormones
Main source of energy in the body

23

What are the three types of carbohydrate?

Sugars
Starch
Dietary fibre

24

What type of carbohydrate is a simple carbohydrate?

Sugars

25

What types of carbohydrates are complex carbohydrates?

Starch
Dietary fibre

26

What is the scientific name for a simple sugar?

Monosaccharide

27

Identify two single sugars:

A) Glucose
B) Maltose
C) Glycogen
D) Sucrose
E) Fructose

A) Glucose
E) Fructose

28

What is the scientific name for a double sugar?

Disaccharide

29

Identify two double sugars

A) Glucose
B) Maltose
C) Glycogen
D) Sucrose
E) Fructose

B) Maltose
D) Sucrose

30

Sugar that is added to food or found outside of the cell wall is called what?

A free sugar

31

Natural sugar found in fruit and vegetables are called what?

A fruit sugar

32

Sugar found in foods that you would not expect them to be in are called what?

Hidden sugars

33

What could happen as a result of a diet high in free sugars?

Tooth decay, obesity risk, CHD

34

What is the scientific name for starch?

Polysaccharide

35

Where is starch usually found?

Plants

36

Name the starch usually found naturally in fruits

Pectin

37

Name the starch that is usually stored in the liver and muscle as an energy reserve

Glycogen

38

__% of total food energy should come from carbohydrates

45%

39

__% of your total energy should come from starchy carbohydrates, milk sugars and free sugars

45%

40

__% of your total energy should come from free sugars

5%

41

What is the scientific name for dietary fibre?

Non-starch polysaccharide

42

Identify two functions of dietary fibre

Maintain healthy bowel system
Producing soluble fibre

43

How much dietary fibre should an adult consume a day?

30g

44

What do artificial sweeteners do?

Add sweetness without increasing the energy content

45

What does pectin do?

Forms a gel in water - helps products like jam to set

Is thought to reduce cholesterol in the blood

46

What are some symptoms of a deficiency in carbohydrates?

Causes by a lack of energy
Unusual
Causes weight loss - body will start to use fat stores
Severe weakness - if fat stores are depleted, then protein sources will be used

47

What are some symptoms of an excess of carbohydrates?

If carbohydrates are not used, then they are converted into fat, which could lead to obesity
Obesity can lead to other health issues such as having an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

48

Why is dietary fibre important?

It cannot be broken down by the body
As it passes through the intestine it absorbs water and increases in bulk

49

What are the two types of fibre?

Soluble fibre
Insoluble fibre

50

What are two functions of soluble fibre?

Slows digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
Helps control blood sugars (e.g. insulin)

51

Name two sources of soluble fibre

Oats
Vegetables such as potatoes, broccoli and carrots

52

What are two functions of insoluble fibre?

Absorbs water
Helps food to pass through the intestines quickly

53

Excess of dietary fibre stops the absorption of which two minerals?

Iron and calcium

54

What could a deficiency in dietary fibre cause?

It could increase the chance of developing bowel problems such as constipation

55

What is the dietary reference value of dietary fibre for adults and children/

Adults - 30g

Children need slightly less due to their size

56

What is the scientific name for fat?

Triglyceride

57

Give two functions of fats

Insulates the body
Backup source of energy when carbohydrates are depleted

58

What texture do fats provide in food?

Crumbly, crisp and moist

59

Give two sources of visible fat

Marbled fat on meat
Butter on bread

60

Give two sources of invisible fat

Crisps
Cakes

61

What is emulsion?

Fat droplets distributed in water

62

Give three examples of animal fat

Butter
Ghee
Lard

63

Give three examples of vegetable fat

Avocados
Olives
Vegetable and plant oils

64

What is hydrogenation?

A process when vegetable oils are 'hardened' to make them solid at room temperature

65

What is formed when oil is hydrogenated?

Trans-fats

66

What health condition are trans-fats supposed to cause?

Heart problems

67

What is a fat molecule made up of?

2 fatty acids
1 glycerol

68

Describe the chemical structure of saturated fats

Single bonds between all carbon atoms

All bonds saturated (full) with hydrogen

69

Describe the chemical structure of unsaturated fats

Some hydrogen atoms are missing

Creates an 'unsaturated molecule' and a double bond between two carbon atoms

Liquid at room temerature

70

Give two sources of saturated fats

Animal products - e.g. meat
Some vegetable and plant oils - e.g. sunflower

71

Give two sources of unsaturated fats

Nuts and seeds
Oily fish

72

How does saturated fat supposedly affect your health?

Linked to heart disease
These foods often contain high amounts of cholesterol
Most people eat too much

73

How does unsaturated fat supposedly affect your health?

Research suggests that it is healthier than saturated fat
Lower blood cholesterol in foods
Reduced risk of a heart attack

74

What are the two types of unsaturated fats?

Monounsaturated fats
Polyunsaturated fats

75

Give two examples of monounsaturated fats

Avocados
Cashew nuts

76

Describe the structure of monounsaturated fats

They have one double bond

77

Give two examples of polyunsaturated fats

Corn
Soya

78

Describe the structure of polyunsaturated fats

Two or more double bonds

79

What are the two essential fatty acids?

Omega 3 and omega 6

80

What is the function of essential fatty acids?

They are vital for the proper functioning of the brain, heart and development of the nervous system

81

Give two sources of omega 3

Oily fish
Green leafy vegetables

82

Give two sources of omega 6

Vegetables
Grains

83

What type of unsaturated fat are omega 3 and omega 6

Polyunsaturated fats

84

What is cholesterol?

A fatty substance needed for normal functioning of the body
Essential part of cell membranes

85

How does cholesterol help fats?

It helps the body digest fats

86

Cholesterol levels rise when food containing which type of fat is eaten?

Saturated fat

87

What are lipoproteins?

Proteins that carry cholesterol around the body

88

What are the two types of lipoproteins?

Low density lipoproteins (LDL)
High density lipoproteins (HDL)

89

What is the result of having too much bad cholesterol and saturated fat?

Build up in cholesterol and heart disease

90

What is the dietary reference value for fats?

35% maximum food energy
11% from saturated
1-2% from essential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6)

91

How much fat does the average person consume?

42% maximum of food energy

92

What does having too much saturated fat cause?

An increase in LDL (Low density lipoprotein) levels
Increases the risk of a heart attack

93

What is deficiency in fat?

Unlikely in economically developed countries, however it could cause individuals to be very skinny and weak. Their bodies and organs would not be well insulated