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Flashcards in Major Policies Deck (44)
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When was the Endangered Species Act established?

December 28, 1973.


What does ESA stand for?

Endangered Species Act


How many endangered or threatened marine species are protected under the ESA?



How many species are protected under the ESA total?



What is a critical habitat in the ESA?

That can sustain the species that require special protections.
(Rough definition - see for more information).


What does MSA stand for?

Magnuson-Stevens Act. (AKA: the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act).


When was the MSA signed into law?

April 13, 1976.


What are the goals of the MSA?

1. Prevent overfishing.
2. Rebuild overfished stocks.
3. Increase long-term economic and social benefits.
4. Ensure a safe and sustainable supply of seafood.


What is the most significant result of the MSA?

It extended US jurisdiction out to 200 nautical miles. (Previously, waters past 12 nm were international waters).


What else resulted from the MSA?

The establishment of 8 regional fishery management councils.


The MSA was revised twice. When?

1996 (Sustainable Fisheries Act); 2007 (Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act).


What does MMPA stand for?

Marine Mammal Protection Act


When was the MMPA enacted?

October 21, 1972.


All marine mammals are protected under the MMPA. The Department of Commerce through the National Marine Fisheries Service is responsible for what species?

Whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, and sea lions.


All marine mammals are protected under the MMPA. The Department of the Interior through the USFWS is responsible for what species?

Walrus, manatees, otters, and polar bears.


What department is responsible for protecting marine mammals in captivity?

Department of Agriculture, through the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.


The MMPA established the concept of OSP, as opposed to Maximum Sustainable Yield in order to shift focus to healthy ecosystems, and not harvest. What does OSP stand for?

Optimum Sustainable Population.


The MMPA established a moratorium on the taking of marine mammals (including harassment, capture, and killing), except for what group?

Alaska natives, to create "authentic handicrafts and clothing" without permits or authorizations. Can't be wasteful.


When was the MMPA amended and what did it include?

1994. It includes provisions for taking for research, alaska natives, catches incidental to commercial fishing operations, preparation of stock assessments for marine mammals, and pinniped interactions.


What does NEPA stand for?

National Environmental Policy Act.


What did NEPA do?

It requires that all federal executive agencies prepare environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs). It also created the CEQ (The President's Council on Environmental Quality).


When was NEPA passed?

1969. (Went into effect 1/1/1970).


Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring helped to pass what Acts in the 1960s?

Wilderness, Clean Air, Clean Water.


What was the purpose of The Oceans Act of 2000?

Established a commission to recommend ocean policy decisions.


What is another name for the Merchant Marine Policy Act of 1920? (US)

Jones Act


What is cabotage?

The practice of a foreign ship transporting goods between two domestic ports. (Prevention of cabotage was a major focus of the Jones Act.)


What does section 27 of the Jones Act require?

Goods transported between two US ports must be transported by US-flag carrying ships, manned and owned by US citizens, and constructed within the US.


What does the Jones Act do?

It regulates marine commerce in US waters and ports.


What impact did the Jones Act have on Seamen?

It protected seamen's rights- through allowing injured seamen to collect on the negligence of the captain, owner, or fellow seamen.


DOHSA is a United States marine policy act passed in 1920. What does DOHSA stand for?

Death on the High Seas Act.


What did DOHSA do?

Allowed for the spouses, children, and dependents a of person killed in international waters to sue in wrongful death cases for "negligence or unseaworthiness." Also applies to airline disasters on international waters.


What Act established the existence of a class of merchant marines?

The Merchant Marine Act of 1936.


What Act required the formation of the United States Maritime Commission?

Merchant Marine Act of 1936.


What is the definition of a merchant marine?

It's a registered fleet of ships that carries both domestic and foreign commerce, and in times of war can act as an auxiliary to the navy (that supplies naval ships with goods.)


When was the Ocean Dumping Act passed?



What is another name for the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)?

The Ocean Dumping Act.


What was the London Convention?

A 1972 international convention in London designed to regulate the deliberate disposal of waste, by using permits and banning certain substances.


The London Convention treaty was modified in 2006 to become the London Protocol. What is different about it?

It expressly prohibits incineration at sea and exporting waste for the purpose of dumping. A "reverse" list designates what may be dumped, generally organic materials.


What does UNCED stand for?

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development


What is UNCED also known as?

Earth Summit


What problems did UNCED address?

Water supply, alternatives to fossil fuel use, patterns of production, and public transportation as a solution.


What is the Paris Agreement and when was it signed?

It is being signed currently (in 2016) and hasn't been ratified yet. An ambitious plan to reduce global worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and hold worldwide temperatures constant (and lower).


What is the Kyoto Protocol?

A plan negotiated in 1997 to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. (The US didn't ratify it.)


What does UNFCCC stand for?

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (Whew!)