Flashcards in Major Policies Deck (84):
When was the Endangered Species Act established?
December 28, 1973.
What does ESA stand for?
Endangered Species Act
How many endangered or threatened marine species are protected under the ESA?
How many species are protected under the ESA total?
What is a critical habitat in the ESA?
That can sustain the species that require special protections. (Rough definition - see http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/criticalhabitat.htm for more information).
What does MSA stand for?
Magnuson-Stevens Act. (AKA: the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act).
When was the MSA signed into law?
April 13, 1976.
What are the goals of the MSA?
1. Prevent overfishing.
2. Rebuild overfished stocks.
3. Increase long-term economic and social benefits.
4. Ensure a safe and sustainable supply of seafood.
What is the most significant result of the MSA?
It extended US jurisdiction out to 200 nautical miles. (Previously, waters past 12 nm were international waters).
Which bureaucratic entities resulted from the MSA?
The establishment of 8 regional fishery management councils.
The MSA was revised twice. When?
1996 (Sustainable Fisheries Act); 2007 (Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act).
What does MMPA stand for?
Marine Mammal Protection Act
When was the MMPA enacted?
October 21, 1972.
The Department of Commerce through the National Marine Fisheries Service is responsible for what species?
Whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, and sea lions.
All marine mammals are protected under the MMPA. The Department of the Interior through the USFWS is responsible for what species?
Walrus, manatees, otters, and polar bears.
What department is responsible for protecting marine mammals in captivity?
Department of Agriculture, through the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
The MMPA established the concept of OSP, as opposed to Maximum Sustainable Yield in order to shift focus to healthy ecosystems, and not harvest. What does OSP stand for?
Optimum Sustainable Population.
The MMPA established a moratorium on the taking of marine mammals (including harassment, capture, and killing), except for what group?
Alaska natives, to create "authentic handicrafts and clothing" without permits or authorizations. Can't be wasteful.
When was the MMPA amended and what did it include?
1994. It includes provisions for taking for research, alaska natives, catches incidental to commercial fishing
What does NEPA stand for?
National Environmental Policy Act.
What did NEPA do?
requires federal executive agencies to prepare environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs). created the CEQ (The President's Council on Environmental Quality).
When was NEPA passed?
1969. (Went into effect 1/1/1970).
Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring helped to pass what Acts in the 1960s?
Wilderness, Clean Air, Clean Water.
What was the purpose of The Oceans Act of 2000?
Established a commission to recommend ocean policy decisions.
What is another name for the Merchant Marine Policy Act of 1920? (US)
What is cabotage?
The practice of a foreign ship transporting goods between two domestic ports. (Prevention of cabotage was a major focus of the Jones Act.)
What does section 27 of the Jones Act require?
Goods transported between two US ports must be transported by US-flag carrying ships, manned and owned by US citizens, and constructed within the US.
What does the Jones Act do?
It regulates marine commerce in US waters and ports.
What impact did the Jones Act have on Seamen?
allows injured seamen to collect on the negligence of others
DOHSA is a United States marine policy act passed in 1920. What does DOHSA stand for?
Death on the High Seas Act.
What did DOHSA do?
Allowed relatives of person killed in international waters to sue in wrongful death cases for "negligence or unseaworthiness."
Also applies to airline disasters on international waters.
What Act established the existence of a class of merchant marines?
The Merchant Marine Act of 1936.
What Act required the formation of the United States Maritime Commission?
Merchant Marine Act of 1936.
What is the definition of a merchant marine?
It's a registered fleet of ships that carries both domestic and foreign commerce, and in times of war can act as an auxiliary to the navy (that supplies naval ships with goods.)
When was the Ocean Dumping Act passed?
What is another name for the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)?
The Ocean Dumping Act.
What was the London Convention?
1972, designed to regulate the deliberate disposal of waste, by using permits and banning certain substances.
The London Convention treaty was modified in 2006 to become the London Protocol. What is different about it?
prohibits incineration at sea and exporting waste for the purpose of dumping.
What does UNCED stand for?
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
What is UNCED also known as?
What problems did UNCED address?
Water supply, alternatives to fossil fuel use, patterns of production, and public transportation as a solution.
What is the Paris Agreement and when was it signed?
An ambitious plan to reduce global worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and hold worldwide temperatures constant (and lower).
What is the Kyoto Protocol?
A plan amount 150 nations negotiated in 1997 to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. (The US didn't ratify it)
What does UNFCCC stand for?
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Antarctic Conservation Act
Protects native mammals, birds, and plants and their ecosystems.
Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act
Recognized the commercial and recreational importance of striped bass and established a management scheme.
Bureau of Land Management
To sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for use and enjoyment of present and future generations.
Clear Water Act
Set national water quality goals and created pollutant discharge permits.
(The Santa Barbara, California, oil spill of 1969 publicity helped pass)
Coastal Development Act
1990. Opened Florida coastal areas for development.
Coastal Zone Management Act
1972. Provided funds for state planning and management of coastal areas.
Endangered Species Act
1973. Provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found.
Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)
To conserve, protect, and enhance the nation's fish and wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of people.
Great Lakes Critical Programs Act
1948. implement a fishery resources restoration, development, and conservation program.
Hatcheries, wildlife species and habitat assessment surveys, control sea lampreys, etc.
National Estuary Program (NEP)
1987. To identify nationally significant estuaries that are threatened by pollution
Waste Reduction Act
establish an office of Pollution Prevention
develop pollution prevention strategy
Source reduction models.
Companies report annually on source reduction and recycling activities
Water Quality Act
first clear water purity standards. Created the
Water Pollution Control Administration.
Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
Allows operations of hatcheries and improvement of feeding and spawning conditions
Coastal Barrier Act
1982. Eliminated federal development incentives on undeveloped coastal barriers
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem.
Emergency Wetlands Resource Act
1986. Authorized the purchase of wetlands
established a National Wetlands Priority Conservation Plan
requires states to include wetlands in outdoor recreational plans.
Federal Water Pollution Control Acts
1948. comprehensive programs for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries
Fish and Wildlife Act
1956. Established a comprehensive national fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources policy
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act
1980. Encourages states to develop conservation plans.
Fish and Wildlife Improvements Act
1978. Training state fish and wildlife enforcement personnel to cooperate with other federal or state agencies for enforcement
Fur Seal Act
1966. Prohibits the taking of fur seals except Indians who live on the North Pacific Ocean.
Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act
1998. Established goals for the USFWS programs in the great lakes
requires the service to undertake a number of activities specifically related to fishery resources.
Land and Water Conservation Act
Provides for Congress to plan for outdoor recreational use, and constructing outdoor recreational facilities.
Allows connections of user fees at recreation areas.
Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act
Discharge of plastics into water is prohibited.
Trash can’t be discharged in waters offshore inside 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.
Marine Protection, Resources, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)
Regulate dumping of waste into oceans and coastal waters.
Designated marine sanctuaries.
Also known as Ocean Dumping Act
Migratory Bird Conservation Act
1929. Approves areas of land or water as reservations for migratory birds.
Migratory Bird Treaty Act
1918. taking, killing, or possessing migratory birds is unlawful.
National Wildlife Refuge System Act
management of the National Wildlife Refuge System
Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act
1990. Established a brand new federal program to prevent introduction of aquatic nuisance
Ocean Dumping Ban Act
1988. Makes it unlawful for any person to dump or transport for the purpose of dumping
Oil Spill Prevention and Liability Act
1990. Strengthened the EPA's ability to prevent and respond to catastrophic oil spills.
Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act
Competitively auction the Luther continental shelf to prevent waste and conserve natural resources
The 1978 amendments provide for cancellation of leases or permits if continued activity is likely to cause serious harm to life
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Regulates nonhazardous and hazardous solid waste disposal facilities and for hazardous wastes.
Salmon and Steelhead Conservation and Enhancement Act
Established a salmon and steelhead enhancement program in the Columbia River, Washington
Soil and Water Conservation Act
Provides for a continuing appraisal of US soil, water, and related resources
Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP)
Requires states to identify the areas that are sources of public drinking water and assess possible contamination
Source Water Protection Program (SWPP)
Established SWPP: preventing pollution of groundwater, lakes, rivers, and streams
Species Conservation Act
compile a list of endangered species
Combined lands into the National Wildlife Refuge system
Banned the importation of any fish or wildlife on a new list
Water Resources Development Act
establish and maintain dam safety programs.