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Flashcards in Major Policies Deck (84):
1

When was the Endangered Species Act established?

December 28, 1973.

2

What does ESA stand for?

Endangered Species Act

3

How many endangered or threatened marine species are protected under the ESA?

139.

4

How many species are protected under the ESA total?

2,245.

5

What is a critical habitat in the ESA?

That can sustain the species that require special protections. (Rough definition - see http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/criticalhabitat.htm for more information).

6

What does MSA stand for?

Magnuson-Stevens Act. (AKA: the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act).

7

When was the MSA signed into law?

April 13, 1976.

8

What are the goals of the MSA?

1. Prevent overfishing.
2. Rebuild overfished stocks.
3. Increase long-term economic and social benefits.
4. Ensure a safe and sustainable supply of seafood.

9

What is the most significant result of the MSA?

It extended US jurisdiction out to 200 nautical miles. (Previously, waters past 12 nm were international waters).

10

Which bureaucratic entities resulted from the MSA?

The establishment of 8 regional fishery management councils.

11

The MSA was revised twice. When?

1996 (Sustainable Fisheries Act); 2007 (Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act).

12

What does MMPA stand for?

Marine Mammal Protection Act

13

When was the MMPA enacted?

October 21, 1972.

14

The Department of Commerce through the National Marine Fisheries Service is responsible for what species?

Whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, and sea lions.

15

All marine mammals are protected under the MMPA. The Department of the Interior through the USFWS is responsible for what species?

Walrus, manatees, otters, and polar bears.

16

What department is responsible for protecting marine mammals in captivity?

Department of Agriculture, through the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

17

The MMPA established the concept of OSP, as opposed to Maximum Sustainable Yield in order to shift focus to healthy ecosystems, and not harvest. What does OSP stand for?

Optimum Sustainable Population.

18

The MMPA established a moratorium on the taking of marine mammals (including harassment, capture, and killing), except for what group?

Alaska natives, to create "authentic handicrafts and clothing" without permits or authorizations. Can't be wasteful.

19

When was the MMPA amended and what did it include?

1994. It includes provisions for taking for research, alaska natives, catches incidental to commercial fishing

20

What does NEPA stand for?

National Environmental Policy Act.

21

What did NEPA do?

requires federal executive agencies to prepare environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs). created the CEQ (The President's Council on Environmental Quality).

22

When was NEPA passed?

1969. (Went into effect 1/1/1970).

23

Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring helped to pass what Acts in the 1960s?

Wilderness, Clean Air, Clean Water.

24

What was the purpose of The Oceans Act of 2000?

Established a commission to recommend ocean policy decisions.

25

What is another name for the Merchant Marine Policy Act of 1920? (US)

Jones Act

26

What is cabotage?

The practice of a foreign ship transporting goods between two domestic ports. (Prevention of cabotage was a major focus of the Jones Act.)

27

What does section 27 of the Jones Act require?

Goods transported between two US ports must be transported by US-flag carrying ships, manned and owned by US citizens, and constructed within the US.

28

What does the Jones Act do?

It regulates marine commerce in US waters and ports.

29

What impact did the Jones Act have on Seamen?

allows injured seamen to collect on the negligence of others

30

DOHSA is a United States marine policy act passed in 1920. What does DOHSA stand for?

Death on the High Seas Act.

31

What did DOHSA do?

Allowed relatives of person killed in international waters to sue in wrongful death cases for "negligence or unseaworthiness."
Also applies to airline disasters on international waters.

32

What Act established the existence of a class of merchant marines?

The Merchant Marine Act of 1936.

33

What Act required the formation of the United States Maritime Commission?

Merchant Marine Act of 1936.

34

What is the definition of a merchant marine?

It's a registered fleet of ships that carries both domestic and foreign commerce, and in times of war can act as an auxiliary to the navy (that supplies naval ships with goods.)

35

When was the Ocean Dumping Act passed?

1972

36

What is another name for the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)?

The Ocean Dumping Act.

37

What was the London Convention?

1972, designed to regulate the deliberate disposal of waste, by using permits and banning certain substances.

38

The London Convention treaty was modified in 2006 to become the London Protocol. What is different about it?

prohibits incineration at sea and exporting waste for the purpose of dumping.

39

What does UNCED stand for?

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

40

What is UNCED also known as?

Earth Summit

41

What problems did UNCED address?

Water supply, alternatives to fossil fuel use, patterns of production, and public transportation as a solution.

42

What is the Paris Agreement and when was it signed?

2016,
An ambitious plan to reduce global worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and hold worldwide temperatures constant (and lower).

43

What is the Kyoto Protocol?

A plan amount 150 nations negotiated in 1997 to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. (The US didn't ratify it)

44

What does UNFCCC stand for?

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

45

Antarctic Conservation Act

1978

Protects native mammals, birds, and plants and their ecosystems.

46

Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act

1984

Recognized the commercial and recreational importance of striped bass and established a management scheme.

47

Bureau of Land Management

To sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for use and enjoyment of present and future generations.

48

Clear Water Act

1972

Set national water quality goals and created pollutant discharge permits.

(The Santa Barbara, California, oil spill of 1969 publicity helped pass)

49

Coastal Development Act

1990. Opened Florida coastal areas for development.

50

Coastal Zone Management Act

1972. Provided funds for state planning and management of coastal areas.

51

Endangered Species Act

1973. Provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found.

52

Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)

To conserve, protect, and enhance the nation's fish and wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of people.

53

Great Lakes Critical Programs Act

1948. implement a fishery resources restoration, development, and conservation program.

Hatcheries, wildlife species and habitat assessment surveys, control sea lampreys, etc.

54

National Estuary Program (NEP)

1987. To identify nationally significant estuaries that are threatened by pollution

55

Waste Reduction Act

1990.
establish an office of Pollution Prevention
develop pollution prevention strategy
Source reduction models.
Companies report annually on source reduction and recycling activities

56

Water Quality Act

1965.
first clear water purity standards. Created the
Water Pollution Control Administration.

57

Anadromous Fish Conservation Act

Allows operations of hatcheries and improvement of feeding and spawning conditions

58

Coastal Barrier Act

1982. Eliminated federal development incentives on undeveloped coastal barriers

59

Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem.

60

Emergency Wetlands Resource Act

1986. Authorized the purchase of wetlands
established a National Wetlands Priority Conservation Plan
requires states to include wetlands in outdoor recreational plans.

61

Federal Water Pollution Control Acts

1948. comprehensive programs for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries

62

Fish and Wildlife Act

1956. Established a comprehensive national fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources policy

63

Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

1980. Encourages states to develop conservation plans.

64

Fish and Wildlife Improvements Act

1978. Training state fish and wildlife enforcement personnel to cooperate with other federal or state agencies for enforcement

65

Fur Seal Act

1966. Prohibits the taking of fur seals except Indians who live on the North Pacific Ocean.

66

Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act

1998. Established goals for the USFWS programs in the great lakes
requires the service to undertake a number of activities specifically related to fishery resources.

67

Land and Water Conservation Act

1965

Provides for Congress to plan for outdoor recreational use, and constructing outdoor recreational facilities.

Allows connections of user fees at recreation areas.

68

Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act

1987.
Discharge of plastics into water is prohibited.
Trash can’t be discharged in waters offshore inside 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.

69

Marine Protection, Resources, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)

1972
Regulate dumping of waste into oceans and coastal waters.
Designated marine sanctuaries.
Also known as Ocean Dumping Act

70

Migratory Bird Conservation Act

1929. Approves areas of land or water as reservations for migratory birds.

71

Migratory Bird Treaty Act

1918. taking, killing, or possessing migratory birds is unlawful.

72

National Wildlife Refuge System Act

1966.
management of the National Wildlife Refuge System

73

Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act

1990. Established a brand new federal program to prevent introduction of aquatic nuisance

74

Ocean Dumping Ban Act

1988. Makes it unlawful for any person to dump or transport for the purpose of dumping

75

Oil Spill Prevention and Liability Act

1990. Strengthened the EPA's ability to prevent and respond to catastrophic oil spills.

76

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

1953.
Competitively auction the Luther continental shelf to prevent waste and conserve natural resources

The 1978 amendments provide for cancellation of leases or permits if continued activity is likely to cause serious harm to life

77

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Regulates nonhazardous and hazardous solid waste disposal facilities and for hazardous wastes.

78

Salmon and Steelhead Conservation and Enhancement Act

1980.
Established a salmon and steelhead enhancement program in the Columbia River, Washington

79

Soil and Water Conservation Act

1977.

Provides for a continuing appraisal of US soil, water, and related resources

80

Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP)

1996.
Requires states to identify the areas that are sources of public drinking water and assess possible contamination

81

Source Water Protection Program (SWPP)

Established SWPP: preventing pollution of groundwater, lakes, rivers, and streams

82

Species Conservation Act

1966,
ESA.
compile a list of endangered species
Combined lands into the National Wildlife Refuge system
Banned the importation of any fish or wildlife on a new list

83

Water Resources Development Act

1986.

establish and maintain dam safety programs.

84

Water Resources Planning Act

1965

evaluate water and land resources projects.
Establishes a Water Resources Council, River Basin Commissions
assesses adequacy of water supplies