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Core conditions Olivia MD > Malaria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malaria Deck (16):
1

what are the 5 types of plasmodium species that can infect humans?

1. Falciparum
2. Vivax
3. Ovale
4. Knowlesi
5. Malariae

2

what is a tertian fever? which plasmodium species does it relate to?

1. Falciparum
2. Vivax
3. Ovale
4. Knowlesi
Fever every 48 hrs

3

what sort of fever does Malariae exhibit?

Quatran fever- every 3 days

4

what are the steps of the lifecycle for Malaria plasmodium species

1. Transmitted by female anophele mosquitoes
2. Sexual form= gametocyte is taken up by the mosquito.
3. Infective sporozoites migrate to mosquito salivary glands
4. Infective sporozoites injected into human blood stream
5. Multiply in the liver
6. (May lay dormant in the liver- Vivax and Ovale)
7. Hepatocytes rupture, releasing merozoites into the bloodstream
8. Merozoites infect RBC and mature into gametocytes.
9.Female mosquito bites again and takes up the gametocyte

5

what is blackwater fever?

intravascular haemolysis--> acute renal failure. Patients see red dark urine. From Falciparum malaria

6

what type of malaria is most lethal?

falciparum

7

what are some generalised complications or symptoms of malaria?

• Anaemia (haemolysis)
• Fluctuating fevers and chills
• Jaundice
• Hepatosplenomegaly
• Glomerulonephritis
• Hypoglycaemia
• Confusion and seizures-> cerebral malaria
Dark Urine- Blackwater fever

8

when do we consider malaria

fever in returned traveller

9

what Ix do we do for malaria?

• Thick and thin blood films- seria;
• FBE
• glucose
• U and E - monitor creatinine
and Urine analysis

10

what type of malaria can be dormant?

vivax and ovale. Dormant in the liver, so may recur or have a delayed presentation

11

how do we treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria?

• Artermisian based treatment + Doxycycline or clindamycin
• Used to be chloroquine but now not used due to increasing chloroquine resistance
Usually oral therapy

12

what do we need to consider before prescribing primaquine? why?

whether the patient has G6PD deficiency. If they do then this antimalarial drug causes oxidative haemolysis

13

what drugs do we use for vivax, ovale malaria?

primaquine

14

what drugs are used as prophylaxis for malaria?

mefloquine and doxycycline

15

Which type of blood film allows species identification?

thin

16

What is thick blood film good for?

to detect low levels of infection