Flashcards in Malaria Deck (16):
what are the 5 types of plasmodium species that can infect humans?
what is a tertian fever? which plasmodium species does it relate to?
Fever every 48 hrs
what sort of fever does Malariae exhibit?
Quatran fever- every 3 days
what are the steps of the lifecycle for Malaria plasmodium species
1. Transmitted by female anophele mosquitoes
2. Sexual form= gametocyte is taken up by the mosquito.
3. Infective sporozoites migrate to mosquito salivary glands
4. Infective sporozoites injected into human blood stream
5. Multiply in the liver
6. (May lay dormant in the liver- Vivax and Ovale)
7. Hepatocytes rupture, releasing merozoites into the bloodstream
8. Merozoites infect RBC and mature into gametocytes.
9.Female mosquito bites again and takes up the gametocyte
what is blackwater fever?
intravascular haemolysis--> acute renal failure. Patients see red dark urine. From Falciparum malaria
what type of malaria is most lethal?
what are some generalised complications or symptoms of malaria?
• Anaemia (haemolysis)
• Fluctuating fevers and chills
• Confusion and seizures-> cerebral malaria
Dark Urine- Blackwater fever
when do we consider malaria
fever in returned traveller
what Ix do we do for malaria?
• Thick and thin blood films- seria;
• U and E - monitor creatinine
and Urine analysis
what type of malaria can be dormant?
vivax and ovale. Dormant in the liver, so may recur or have a delayed presentation
how do we treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria?
• Artermisian based treatment + Doxycycline or clindamycin
• Used to be chloroquine but now not used due to increasing chloroquine resistance
Usually oral therapy
what do we need to consider before prescribing primaquine? why?
whether the patient has G6PD deficiency. If they do then this antimalarial drug causes oxidative haemolysis
what drugs do we use for vivax, ovale malaria?
what drugs are used as prophylaxis for malaria?
mefloquine and doxycycline
Which type of blood film allows species identification?