The one exception to the "No vaccines" claim that was given in class
RTSS vaccine for malaria
(50% reduction in cases)
Malaria is caused by the genus ______
Most severe Plasmodium?
Common in ____
common in tropics
Less common plasmodium species?
Why is it less common?
Where is it found?
Infection is limited to reticulocytes
Common in subtropics and temerate regions
Third and fourth common plasmodiums?
What are the types of infections they cause?
Ovale = Relapsing malaria
knowlesi = 24 hour life cycle, zoonotic infections
Where is plasmodium ovale found?
What is the fastest-replicating plasmodium species?
It has a 24 hour lifecycle, which means it can increase the population very quickly
Plasmodium Life cycle:
- Infected mosquito injects____
- They go to the liver and become _____
- They are released and invade ___ cells
- Once in the cell, these become ______
- This multiplies, giving more ______
- These are released and become _____
- Female mosquito picks them up and _____ are formed
- Red blood cells
- New merozoites
Which plasmodium forms hypnozoites?
How/where does this form live?
How do you treat for this?
Lies dormant in the liver
It only responds to Primaquine
How does plasmodium bind to the placenta?
It binds to chondroitin sulfate A
Three conditions covered in malaria pathogenesis
Cerebral malaria pathogenesis
Blood brain barrier disruption (from ROS) = Edema and hemorrhage
Tissue hypoxia (from Microvascular obstruction) = Parenchymal and axonal damage
What causes severe anemia in malaria pathogenesis
Hemolysis of immature RBCs
What causes the metabolic acidosis in malaria?
Tissue hypoxia causes lactic acid from anaerobic glycolysis
Three stages of classic, uncomplicated malaria
The symptoms of uncomplicated malaria are generally _______
(Chills, headache, myalgias and malaise)
also ANEMIA and JAUNDICE
5 major symptoms of severe malaria
Organ failures (renal)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
What is malaria during pregnancy called?
Especially during first pregnancy, causes low birth weight and miscarriage
Antimalarials, three categories and what they target:
Tissue schizonticides = kill liver stage
Blood schizonticides = kill erythrocytic forms
Gametocytocides = kill sexual stages and block transmission
All antimalarial compounds are effective against ______
Asexual blood stages
Antimalarials that target Liver stage
Antimalarials that target the hypnozoites
Antimalarials that target gametocytes
Four methods of malaria prevention
5 drugs for prevention of clinical disease
Malarone (atovaquone + proguanil)
Malarone area and preventive course
start 1-2 days before, continue one week after
Doxy area and preventive course of treatment
start 1-2 days before, continue 4 weeks after
Chloroquine areas and preventive course
Chloroquine sensitive areas
start 1-2 weeks before and continue 4 weeks after
Mefloquine area and Pretreatment course
start more than two weeks before, continue more than four weeks after
Primaquine area and course of pretreatment
If >90 P. vivax in the area
Start 1-2 days before, continue one week after