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Flashcards in Malaria (and Toxo) Deck (93)
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1

The one exception to the "No vaccines" claim that was given in class

RTSS vaccine for malaria

 

(50% reduction in cases)

2

Malaria is caused by the genus ______

Plasmodium

3

Most severe Plasmodium?

Common in ____

falciparum

common in tropics

4

Less common plasmodium species?

Why is it less common?

Where is it found?

Vivax

Infection is limited to reticulocytes

Common in subtropics and temerate regions

5

Third and fourth common plasmodiums?

What are the types of infections they cause?

Ovale = Relapsing malaria

knowlesi = 24 hour life cycle, zoonotic infections

6

Where is plasmodium ovale found?

West africa

7

What is the fastest-replicating plasmodium species?

Knowlesi

 

It has a 24 hour lifecycle, which means it can increase the population very quickly

8

Plasmodium Life cycle:

  1. Infected mosquito injects____
  2. They go to the liver and become _____
  3. They are released and invade ___ cells
  4. Once in the cell, these become ______
  5. This multiplies, giving more ______
  6. These are released and become _____
  7. Female mosquito picks them up and _____ are formed

  1. Sporozoites
  2. Merozoites
  3. Red blood cells
  4. Trophozoites
  5. New merozoites
  6. gametocytes
  7. sporozoites

9

Which plasmodium forms hypnozoites?

How/where does this form live?

How do you treat for this?

Vivax

Lies dormant in the liver

It only responds to Primaquine

10

How does plasmodium bind to the placenta?

It binds to chondroitin sulfate A

11

Three conditions covered in malaria pathogenesis

Cerebral malaria

Severe anemia

Metabolic acidosis

12

Cerebral malaria pathogenesis

Blood brain barrier disruption (from ROS) = Edema and hemorrhage

Tissue hypoxia (from Microvascular obstruction) = Parenchymal and axonal damage

 

 

13

What causes severe anemia in malaria pathogenesis

 

Hemolysis of immature RBCs

(Rosetting)

14

What causes the metabolic acidosis in malaria?

Tissue hypoxia causes lactic acid from anaerobic glycolysis

15

Three stages of classic, uncomplicated malaria

Cold stage

hot stage

sweating stage

16

The symptoms of uncomplicated malaria are generally _______

Flu-like

 

(Chills, headache, myalgias and malaise)

 

also ANEMIA and JAUNDICE

17

5 major symptoms of severe malaria

Organ failures (renal)

Cerebral malaria

Anemia

Hemoglobinuria

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

18

What is malaria during pregnancy called?

Features?

Placental Malaria

 

Especially during first pregnancy, causes low birth weight and miscarriage

19

Antimalarials, three categories and what they target:

Tissue schizonticides = kill liver stage

Blood schizonticides = kill erythrocytic forms

Gametocytocides = kill sexual stages and block transmission

20

All antimalarial compounds are effective against ______

Asexual blood stages

21

Antimalarials that target Liver stage

Artemisinins

Primaquine

Pyrimethamine

Atovaquone

22

Antimalarials that target the hypnozoites

Primaquine

23

Antimalarials that target gametocytes

Artemisinins

Mefloquine

Amodiaquine

Primaquine

Pyrimethamine

24

Four methods of malaria prevention

Insect repellent

Insecticides

Bed nets

Chemoprophylaxis

25

5 drugs for prevention of clinical disease

Malarone (atovaquone + proguanil)

Doxycycline

Chloroquine

Mefloquine

Primaquine

26

Malarone area and preventive course

All areas

start 1-2 days before, continue one week after

27

Doxy area and preventive course of treatment

All areas

start 1-2 days before, continue 4 weeks after

28

Chloroquine areas and preventive course

Chloroquine sensitive areas

start 1-2 weeks before and continue  4 weeks after

29

Mefloquine area and Pretreatment course

Mef-sensitive areas

start more than two weeks before, continue more than four weeks after

30

Primaquine area and course of pretreatment

If >90 P. vivax in the area

Start 1-2 days before, continue one week after