Male and female reproductive tract histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Male and female reproductive tract histology Deck (80):
1

What is the ovary attached to?

What is anchored by?

Posterior face of broad ligament 

Anchored by ovarian ligament (to uterus) and suspensory ligament (to pelvic wall)

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2

How is the internal structure of the ovary divided?

Inner medulla (loose connective tissue and blood vessels)

Outer cortex (ovarian follicles)

3

In which part of the ovary are the follicles found?

Outer cortex

4

Describe the cortical stroma of the ovary?

Highly cellular connective tissue

Scattered with smooth muscle cells 

5

Which organ is this?

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Ovary

6

Describe the surface epithelium of the ovary?

Simple squamous or cuboidal

Continuous with mesothelium 

Tunica albuginea beneath it

70% ovarian tumours arise here

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7

Describe the tunica albuginea of the ovary?

Beneath the surface epithelium

Dense connective tissue

Oocytes deep to it 

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8

What are primordial oocytes?

Smallest oocytes

Arrested in prophase of meiosis 1

Squamous follicle cells on outside, surrounded by common basal lamina 

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9

What are primary oocytes?

Oocyte surrounded by zona pellucida (within follicle cell layer)

Enlarged

Follicular cells become cuboidal and multilayered granulosa cells

Stromal cells start to form theca interna and externa 

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10

Which cells form the stratum granulosum in the primary oocyte?

Follicular cells

11

Which cells form the theca interna and externa in the primary oocyte?

Stromal cells

12

What is a secondary follicle?

Stratum granulosum thickened

Antrum appears

Cumulus oophorus: stalk of granulosa cells that suspend oocyte

Corona radiata formed by granulosa cells around oocyte after release 

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13

What is the cumulus oophorus?

Stalk of granulosa cells that suspend oocyte in secondary follicle 

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14

What is the corona radiata?

Granulosa cells around oocyte form corona radiata after release 

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15

What is a Graafian follicle?

Mature follicle

16

When does the oocyte complete its first meiotic division?

Under LH surge 

17

When does the primary oocyte become a secondary oocyte?

When it completes its first meiotic division after the LH surge 

18

What happens after the secondary oocyte is formed?

Follicle ruptures > oocyte released into body cavity > uterine tubes > corpus luteum formed

19

What is the corpus luteum formed from?

Follicle that has lost its oocyte

20

Describe the corpus luteum?

Stromal, granulosa and thecal cells invade cavity to differentitate into luteal cells

Contain lipid and become vascularised

 

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21

What is the function of the corpus luteum?

Produces progesterone and oestrogen to prepare endometrium for implantation

22

How long does the corpus luteum last for?

14 days without fertilisation

No fertilisation > regresses to form corpus albicans

23

Which important processes occur in the uterine tubes?

Collects released oocytes

Fertilisation and initial development

24

Describe the structure of the uterine tubes?

Serosa: mesothelium plus thin connective tissue

Muscularis: smooth muscle

Mucosa: connective tissue plus epithelium

25

How does the structure of the uterine tubes facilitate the movement of oocytes?

Cilia move oocyte towards isthmus

Smooth muscle peristalsis

26

Where does fertilisation usually occur?

Ampulla of uterine tubes

27

What are the layers of the uterine wall?

Endometrium (mucosa)

Myometrium (muscularis)

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28

Describe the external surface of the uterine wall?

Covered by perimetrium, which consists of mesothelium and underlying elastic connective tissue

29

Describe the myometrium?

Three layers of smooth muscle

Inner and outer layers are longitudinal, middle layer is circular 

Middle layer is very vascular

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30

How does the uterus accommodate pregnancy?

Enlarges individual smooth muscle cells

Generates more smooth muscle cell

Increases connective tissue

31

Describe the structure of the endometrium?

EPITHELIUM

Mix of ciliated and secretory columnar cells 
Simple epithelium 

SECRETORY GLANDS

Penetrate into lamina propria 

HELICAL ARTERIES

BASAL LAYER

Regenerates functional layer after sloughing off
Stem cell resevoir

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32

How does the endometrium chnage throughout the menstrual cycle?

What controls this?

Changes thickness

Growth driven by oestrogen
Breakdown due to decrease of oestrogen and progesterone

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33

Describe the structure of the proliferative endometrium?

Abundant coiled glands, which are relatively small and undeveloped 

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34

Describe the structure of the secretory epithelium?

Large, well developed glands that contain secretion 

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35

Describe the difference between the endocervix and the ectocervix structure?

Endocervix: simple columnar epithelium, glandular, secretory

Ectocervix: simple stratified epithelium, non-glandular

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36

Where are cells shed from in the cervix?

Ectocervix

Stratified epithelium sheds cells

37

Describe the epithelium of the vagina?

Stratified squamous epithelium

Non-keratinised

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38

Describe the muscular structure of the vagina?

Smooth muscle

Thin inner and thick outer

Continuous with muscle of uterus

39

Describe the glands of the vagina?

No glands

Lubricated by cervical glands or glands in vestibule

40

Which factors may cause the structure of the breast to vary?

Age

Stage of menstrual cycle

Reproductive status

41

At which stages of life are the male and female mammary glands similar?

Until puberty

42

Describe how puberty affects the male and female mammary glands?

What are the stimuli?

Male: regression due to testosterone

Female: growth due to oestrogen and progesterone

 

43

What accounts for most of the growth in female breasts afetr puberty?

Extra adipose tissue

44

When do mammary glands become active?

Pregnancy

45

How are female mammary glands kept inactive until pregnancy?

Negative influence of stromal cells

46

Describe the structure of mammary glands?

Modified sweat glands

15-20 lobes

Lactiferous ducts form branching network and in in terminal duct lobular units

Surrounding intralobular stromal tissue

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47

What are terminal ductal lobular units?

Functional metabolic unit that sits at the head of the mammary gland

Made up of interlobular collecting ducts and acini

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48

What happens to the mammary glands just before and during menstruation?

Gland involutes, some cells apoptose

49

Describe the appearrance of inactive mammary glands?

Sparse

Cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells

Surrounding myoepithelial cells

Extensive dense connective tissue

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50

Describe the appearrance of active mammary glands?

Terminal ductules elongate and branch

Epithelial and myoepithelial cells proliferate

Large cuboidal epithelial cells that contain lipid and secretory product in lumen

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51

Describe the contents of breast milk?

Protein, lipid and carbohydrate mixture

High in IgA

52

What stimulates milk production?

Prolactin

53

Describe the first breast milk that is released?

Colostrum

High protein, low lipid and carbohydrate

54

Describe the lactation process?

Suckling > inhibits prolactin release-inhibiting hormone > increased prolactin and oxytocin released 

Prolactin stimulates milk production
Oxytocin acts on myoepithelial cells > milk ejection

55

Describe the changes that occur in the mammary glands after menopause?

Mammary glands involute

Secretory cells disappear

Connective tissue loses elastic and collagen fibres and fibroblasts

56

Describe the structure of the testis?

Surrounded by tunica albuginea

Divided into 250 compartments by septa from tunica albuginea

Seminiferous tubules located in compartments 

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57

Describe how the seminiferous tubules connect to the vas deferens?

Seminiferous tubules > rete testis > efferent ductules > epididymis > vas deferens

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58

Describe the structure of the seminiferous tubules?

Stratified epithelium

Surrounded by tunica propria, which contains myoid cells and Leydig cells 

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59

Describe the function of the seminiferous tubules?

Spermatogenesis site

Tunica propria contracts to move sperm down tubules

Leydig cells produce testosterone

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60

What is the function of Sertoli cells?

Support cells for spermatogenesis

Promote cell division and privide correct environment

61

When are Leydig cells active?

First 5 months of foetal life

Puberty onwards

62

Describe the tubuli recti?

Last, straight part of seminiferous tubule

Lined with Sertoli cells only and finally simple cuboidal epithelium 

Connect to rete testis

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63

Describe the structure and function of the rete testis?

Channels lined with ciliated cuboidal cells

Allox mixing of spermatozoa from different tubules

64

How is the rete testis connected to the epididymis?

Efferent ductules

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65

Describe the structure of the epididymis?

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle

Highly coiled (4-6m)

Head, body and tail

Spermatozoa in lumen

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66

Describe the function of the epididymis?

Site of sperm maturation

Decapacitation (inability of sperm to fertilise egg)

Absorbs most testicular fluid around sperm, clean up debris

67

Describe the pathway of the vas deferens?

Epididymis > vas deferens > abdomen via inguinal canal > over lip of pelvis > descends to prostate > through prostate as ejaculatory duct

68

Describe the structure of the vas deferens?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Thick smooth muscle coat (not in ejaculatory duct)

69

Describe the structure of the seminal vesicles?

Thick mucosa

Thin smooth muscle

70

Describe the function of the seminal vesicles?

Secrete fructose and prostaglandin rich secretion

Modify acid of vagina (alkaline)

Provide 50% volume of semen

71

Describe the structure of the prostate?

Lobular

Urethra located centrally

Inferior paired ejaculatory ducts

Branching prostatic (urethral) sinuses

Main prostatic glands (located peripherally), drain into urethra via long ducts

Submucosal glands (located medially), drain via prostatic sinuses

 

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72

Describe the zones of the prostate?

Central zone: surrounds ejaculatory ducts

Peripheral zone: surrounds central zone

Transitional zone: surrounds urethra

Periurethral zone: immediatley adjacent to urethra

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73

Describe the histology of the prostate?

Heterogenous epithelium: columnar or cuboidal, stratified

Separated by connective tissue

Abundant smooth muscle

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74

What may be found within the lumen of prostate glands?

Prostatic concretions

Contain protein, calcium phosphate, cholesterol and cellular debris

More common with age

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75

Describe the function of the prostate gland?

Produces a complex secretion that intially clots the ejaculate

Fibrolysin (in secretion) then dissolves clot

76

Describe the structure of the penis?

Three separate masses of erectile tissue: 2 corpora cavernosa and 1 corpus spongiosum

Surrounded by tunica albuginea

Urethra within corpus spongiosum

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77

Describe how penile erection occurs?

Hydraulic means

Depends on blood and blood pressure

78

Describe the histology of the penile tissue?

Cavernous tissue contains many potential vascular spaces

These spaces are surrounded by smooth muscle and connective tissue

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79

Describe how the nervous system controls penile function?

Parasympathetic stimulation: relaxes cavernosal smooth muscle and dilates arteries supplying blood > swelling of the cavernous bodies compresses veins in supercial penis, restricting outflow > erection 

Sympathetic stimulation: restricts inflow of blood and contracts cavernosal smooth muscle > detumescence

80

Describe the histology of the clitoris?

Body: bilateral cavernous tissue surrounded by tunica albuginea

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