Male genital tract Flashcards Preview

Year 2 > Male genital tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male genital tract Deck (40):
1

What is erythroplasia of Queyrat? How would you describe this histologically?

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (bowen's) of the glans of the penis
Full thickness dysplasia of epidermis

2

Is invasive malignancy of the penis common?

No

3

Where is incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis high?

South America
Africa
East Asia

4

How circumcised or uncircumcised men get squamous cell carcinoma of the penis?

Uncircumcised

5

Name two associations of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Poor hygiene
HPV infection

6

Which sites on the penis are most commonly affected by squamous cell carcinoma?

Glans
Prepuce (foreskin)

7

What are the two different morphologies of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Indurated erythematous plaque
Exophytic mass

8

Is squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum associated with carcinogen exposure?

Yes (chimney sweeps)

9

Is benign prostatic hyperplasia common? Are symptoms common?

Yes, most men over 70 affected
No

10

What is benign prostatic hyperplasia?

Irregular proliferation of stromal and glandular prostate tissue

11

What causes benign prostatic hyperplasia?

Androgen/oestrogen ratio imbalance causing proliferation of central prostate

12

What problems can benign prostatic hyperplasia cause?

Physical obstruction of urethra
Physiological interference with peri-urethral glands

13

What is prostatism?

Hesitancy
Overflow incontinence
Slow stream

14

What type of retention can benign prostatic hyperplasia cause?

Acute
Chronic

15

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is occasionally pre malignant. T/F

False - not pre malignant ever

16

What complications can arise from benign prostatic hyperplasia?

Hydroureter
Hydronephrosis
Infection
Bladder hypertrophy --> diverticulum

17

How is benign prostatic hyperplasia treated?

Surgery (transurethral resection)
Pharmacological (alpha blockers, 5 alpha reductase inhibitors)

18

How common is prostatic cancer?

Common (second leading cause of cancer deaths in males)

19

Which age group is affected by prostatic cancer?

>50 (60-80)

20

There is decreased risk of prostatic cancer but increased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia if a 1st degree relative is affected with prostatic cancer at a young age. T/F

False - inc risk of cancer and no correlation to BPH

21

Where in the prostate does prostatic cancer most commonly present?

Peripheral (particularly posterior lobe)

Nb - central gland only affected in late stage cancer

22

What is latent prostate cancer?

Cancer found incidentally which has not began to cause clinical problems

23

How does prostate cancer spread?

Local - seminal vesicles, bladder, rectum, capsular penetration & urethral obstruction

Lymph - sacral, iliac, para-aortic nodes

Blood - bone (osteosclerotic) in lumbosacral region, lungs, liver

24

How common is metastatic spread/locally advanced prostatic disease at presentation?

Very common

25

How is carcinoma of the prostate diagnosed?

Rectal exam
USS, skeletal x-ray, bone scan
Prostate specific antigen (not always present)
TUR (transurethral resection)
Multiple, needle core biopsies guided by ultrasound

26

How is carcinoma of the prostate managed?

Hormone therapy (anti-androgen, oestrogen, cyproterone)
Radiotherapy for bone mets
Surgery (radical protatectomy)

27

How common are testicular tumours?

Uncommon (commonest solid organ malignancy in young males)

28

What is a huge risk factor for testicular tumours?

Testicular maldescent

29

How do testicular tumours present?

Painless testicular enlargement +/-
- hydrocele
- gynecomastia
- systemic symptoms

30

List the different types of testicular tumours

Germ cell (seminoma, teratoma)
Lymphoma
Stromal tumour
Metastases

31

List the different types of paratesticular tumours

adenomatoid
sarcoma

32

What is the commonest type of testicular tumour?

Seminoma "potato tumour"

33

Who gets seminomas?

30-50 y/o (rare before puberty)

34

What are the two types of seminoma?

Spermatocytic
Anaplastic

35

How does seminoma spread?

Lymph - para-aortic
Blood - liver & lungs

36

How is seminoma treated? What are the cure rates?

Radiotherapy.
High

37

Who gets teratoma?

20-30 y/o (can occur in childhood)

38

List the different types of teratoma

Differentiated
Malignant intermediate
Malignant undifferentiated
Malignant trophoblastic

39

What is a mixed serinoma/teratoma?

Exactly what it sounds like

40

What tumour markers can be used for testicular tumours?

bHCG - trophoblastic
AFP - yolk sac
PLAP - seminoma

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