Male Reproduction, Sperm, Tumescence and Climax Flashcards Preview

Endo/Repro Exam 1 > Male Reproduction, Sperm, Tumescence and Climax > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Reproduction, Sperm, Tumescence and Climax Deck (40):
1

What are the testicular appendix a remnant of?

Paramesonephric ducts (Mullerian)

2

What is the glandular capsule of the testis?

Tunica albuginea

3

Where do Leydig cells reside?

In the extracellular space

4

Structure of Sertoli cells?

Highly irregular with nucleolus always having two smaller satellite bodies

5

Sertoli cells function?

Forms the blood-testis barriers forming tight junctions; separate gametes from blood

6

What is the primary stimulating hormone for Sertoli cells?

FSH

7

What do Leydig cells do?

Produce testosterone in the presence of LH

8

Progression of sperm maturation?

Spermatogonium
Primary spermatocyte
Secondary spermatocyte
Spermatid
Spermatozoa

9

What stage of sperm are found in the basal compartment?

Spermatogonium

10

What stage of sperm are found in the adluminal compartment?

Sc1
Sc2
Spermatid
Spermatozoa

11

Where do Sertoli cells rest?

On the basement membrane

12

Why does only one sperm enter the oocyte?

Once sperm penetrates zona pellucida and fuses with oolemma the ovum releases granules into the perivitelline space preventing the binding of additional sperm and causes additional sperm to fall off, also the oocyte membrane because electrically depolarized fending off additional sperm

13

As the testis move from the abdomen to the scrotum they pick up layers and change names, what are the layers from deep to superficial?

Peritoneum-> tunica vaginalis
Transversalis fascia and aponeurosis-> internal spermatic fascia
Internal oblique abdominus muscle-> Cremaster muscle and fascia
External oblique abdominis aponeurosis-> External spermatic fascia
Superficial abdominal fascia (Camper's fascia)-> Dartos muscle and fascia
Perineal skin-> Scrotum

14

What does the spermatic cord consist of?

Vas deferens
Several arteries
Nerves
Veins

15

What occurs vascularly for an erection to occur?

Blood rapidly enters the cavernous bodies causing swelling and pressure on the deep dorsal vein collapsing it

16

Ventral and dorsal side of the penis?

Ventral is the back of the penis
Dorsal is the front when flaccid

17

What controls blood flow to the penis?

Both PSNS and SNS

18

What relays sensory information from the back half of the scrotum and perineum?

Pudendal nerve

19

Bulbourethral gland function:

Lubrication

20

Prostate gland secretions contents:

Citrate
Calcium
Zinc
Acid phosphatase

21

Citrates function:

Major anion in seminal plasma (function not known)

22

Calcium function:

Important fro sperm swimming and acrosome reaction

23

Zinc function:

Enzyme action, binds many types of proteins

24

Acid phosphatase function:

Neutralizes acid pH of semen and vaginal/cervical secretion

25

Seminal vesicle secretion contents:

Fructose
Prostaglandin

26

Fructose function:

Energy for sperm swimming

27

Prostaglandin function:

Contraction of female reproductive tract

28

Spermatogenesis pathway:

Spermatogonia mitose to primary spermatocytes-> 1st meiotic division to secondary spermatocytes-> 2nd meiotic division to spermatid (only mature to spermatozoa)

29

What do Sertoli cells release in response to how many sperm are bound to its surface?

Inhibin

30

What is inhibin?

A negative feedback substance for FSH

31

What drives spermatogenesis and allows more spermatocytes to be bound to Sertoli cells?

FSH

32

What supplies the dorsum of the penis with innervation?

Genital nerves

33

What are two ways an erection can occur?

Physical stimulation directly sent from pudendal to brain
Sensory information to the mammillary bodies and efferent signals to penis

34

What nerves act when flaccid?

Sympathetic neural tone by releasing norepinephrine causing contraction and not allowing too much blood flow to the penis

35

What nerves act when erection occurs?

Parasympathetic by releasing Ach causing vasodilation

36

What is released causing tumescence?

NO
PGE1
Increased cGMP causing dilation

37

What roots are the PSNS nerves?

S2-S4

38

What occurs during ejaculation?

Sympathetic stimuli cause contraction of ischiocavernosal and bulbocavernosal muscle with peristaltic contractions of epididymides and all the ducts

39

Path of sperm in reproductive tract:

Seminiferous tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
(Nothing)
Urethra
Penis

40

Accessory glands in order they secrete fluid to contribute to semen:

Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands