Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Deck (39):
What covers the outer layer of the testes?
what covers the inner layer of the testes?
what is the name of the structure in which the rete testis are embedded? what is it made of?
mediastinum; projections of the tunica albuginea into the testis
how many lobules are in a testis?; what are in the lobules?
~250; 1-4 Seminiferous tubules; and their terminations at the tubuli recti
what is the lamina propria in the testes called? what types of cells are found there?
tunica propria; myoid cells
three phases of spermatogenesis
what are the sperm cell stem cells called? what are the three types of cells involved in spermatogonium phase? what is the key defining characteristic of this phase?
Type A (dark) cells <- last stage of spermatogonium phase, have intercellular bridges
key characteristic is that it is the mitotic phase
Give me the breakdown of spermatocytes?
Primary spermatocytes - are set to undergo meiosis I - 4d 2n
Secondary spermatocytes - are set to undergo meiosis II - 2d 1n
Early spermatids - finished meiosis - 1d 1n
What are the four phases of spermiogenesis?
1) Golgi phase
2) Cap phase
3) Acrosomal phase
4) maturation phase
Tell me about the Golgi phase
pre-acrosomal vesicles form in the Golgi, centriole migrates to the south pole, vesicle moves to north pole
the acrosomal vesicle is deposited at the anterior pole of the sperm on top of the nucleus
this would be better termed the embedding phase: spermatid embeds itself in the Sertoli cell with the cap facing the tunica propria and the tail in the lumen
full nuclear condensation
elongation of cell
relocation of the mitochondria to the tail
excess cytoplasm is pinched off, and according to the syllabus is released into the lumen
what four enzymes can be found in the acrosome? what are they used for?
acrosin, acid phosphatase, hyaluronidase, neuraminidase; piercing the zona pellucida of the ovum
what are the four regions of the sperm tail?
neck - centrioles and their attachment are here; beginning of the coarse fibers
middle - mitochondria helically wrapped around
principal - axoneme and fibrous sheath
end - just axoneme
what is the shape and function of the Sertoli cells?
tall columnar epithelium; sustentacular for sperm development
What does the Sertoli-Sertoli junction do?
prevents autoimmunity against sperm cells (developing); divides the Sertoli cells into adluminal and basal sides
what procedure commonly results in autoimmunity against sperm cells?
what are the endocrine and exocrine functions of the Sertoli cells?
they release Mullerian inhibiting factor (to prevent female development patterns)
they release fluid to promote release sperm into lumen
they release inhibin which is involved in the negative feedback loop for FSH (in the anterior pituitary)
development happens in groups because of what?
how many stages of development are there in spermatogenesis? how long does it take to produce a sperm?
6 cycles, 74 days
where do you find Leydig cells?
in the intercellular spaces between seminiferous tubules; embedded in extensions of the tunica vasculosa
what are some things you find inside of Leydig cells?
lots of sER, mitochondria with tubulovesicular cristae (these two for testosterone production), Crystals of Reinke (function unknown), lipid droplets (presumably for material for testosterone production)
what regulates testosterone production in Leydig cells?
LH (luteinizing hormone)
what forms the lining of the tubuli recti?
just Sertoli cells
what type of epithelium do you find in the rete testis?
simple cuboidal with microvilli and a single apical cilium
how many efferent ductules are there?
what kind of epithelium is in the efferent ductules?
pseudostratified columnar epithelium (ciliated)
what happens inside the efferent ductules?
concentration of the sperm, regulated by estrogen (salt uptake); also there is the presence of neutrophils here
how long is the epididymis? what are the three parts to it?
7.5 cm (4-6 ft is unwound); head (caput), body (corpus), tail (cauda)
what types of cells are found in the epididymis epithelium? what do they do?
principal cells and basal cells; sercretory and absorptive; they secrete fluid and absorb residual bodies; basal cells are stem cells
As you move down the epididymis what changes occur in the epithelium and smooth muscle coat?
the epithelium becomes shorter and the smooth muscle layer becomes thicker and stratifies (3 layers)
what's up with the Vas deferens?
PCE (pseudo) with stereocilia, in folded lumen, 3 layers of muscle L-C-L (each with own nerve); highest ratio of muscle to lumen in the body
what connects the vas deferens to the urethra?
long tubular glands with secretory epithelium; secretes fructose, ascorbic acid and fibrinogen precursors
secretes citric acid, proteolytic enzymes and acid phosphatases; has fibromuscular stroma; is tubulo-alveolar; secretions can cause concretions
tubulo-alveolar; epithelium varies in height based on testosterone release
what's the name of the arteries that feed erections?