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Gastrointestinal Conditions > Malnutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malnutrition Deck (12):
1

What is malnutrition?

A nutrient deficiency state of protein, energy or micronutrients

2

Classification of malnutrition:

Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Micronutrient deficiency

3

Protein-Energy Malnutrition forms:

1. Kwashiorkor
Fair-to-normal energy
Low protein

Assoc. w/oedema & hepatomegaly

2. Marasmus
Inadequate protein and energy

Severe wasting

4

Micronutrient deficiencies of clinical importance:

* Iron (anaemia)
* Iodine
Hypothyroidism
Goitre
* Vitamin A
Night blindness
* Zinc
Immunodeficiency
Acrodermatitis

Many others

5

Risk factors for malnutrition:

In children:
* Age <5
* Co-existing chronic illness
* Developmental delay
* Neglect
* Poverty

In elderly:
* Living alone
* Institutionalisation
* Mental health problems
* GIT disease
* Catabolic states

6

Symptoms of malnutrition:

* Weight loss (oedema may mask)
* Listlessness
* Fatigue
* Cold sensitivity
* Non-healing wounds
* Specific Sx of micronutrient deficiency

7

Signs of malnutrition:

* weight loss
* Muscle wasting
* Oedema/ascites
* specific signs of micronutrient deficiency

8

Differential diagnosis of malnutrition:

* infection
* Malignancy
* Malabsorption
* Renal disease
* Heart disease
* Depression
* Dementia

9

Investigations in malnutrition:

1. BMI

2. Bloods: Glucose, FBC, U&E, TFTs, LFTs, Haematinics, Coeliac serology, Vitamin levels

10

Management of malnutrition

* Nutritional advice
* OT/SaLT/Social services
* Antiemetics for nausea
* ABCDE for severe malnutrition

11

Complications of malnutrition:

* Immunosuppression
* Sarcopenia
* Impaired wound healing
* Impaired psychosocial function
* Impaired illness recovery
* Reduced QoL
* Refeeding syndrome

12

Refeeding syndrome pathophysiology and results:

Refeeding a starving individual

Stimulates insulin secretion

Causing uptake of already depleted electrolytes

- Hypokalaemia
- Hypomagnesaemia
- Hypophosphataemia

Can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and death