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Flashcards in Management Deck (19):

What is Wildlife Management ?

Wildlife management is the application of ecological knowledge to populations of vertebrate animals and their plant and animal associates in a manner that strikes a balance between the needs of those populations and the needs of people.
Eric Bolen, William L. Robinson


This ecological knowledge is applied in three basic management approaches:

1) preservation, when nature is allowed to take its course without human intervention (custodial);

2) direct manipulation, when animal populations are trapped, shot, poisoned, and stocked; and

3) indirect manipulation, when vegetation, water, or other key components of wildlife habitats are altered.


Management for:

-Game species – hunting, consumptive rec.
-Non-game species - Wildlife viewing Other non- consumptive recreational activities-camping, hiking, etc.


Historically, wildlife management has followed this course:

1) Restrictions (hunting, harvest, access)
2) Control mortality factors (e.g. predator control)
3) Reservation of lands
4) Artificial replenishment
5) Habitat manipulation & control (of food, water, cover, disease, special factors)


Levels of Management

-Individual – wildlife rehab., endangered species
-Single species (population) management – emphasis on one species, e.g. white-tailed deer.
-Ecosystem (community) management (maintenance of ecological diversity)
---Strategic Habitat Conservation; surrogate species
-People Management


Strategic Habitat Management

Ecologically meaningful scales
Work in partnerships
Adaptive management framework
-Biological Planning
-Conservation Design
-Monitoring and Research
Science and tools


ManagementDesired Outcomes

-Healthy permanent populations
---Healthy individuals
---Healthy population parameters
-Healthy habitat
-Wildlife and Human needs in balance.
---Minimize human impact
-Conditions which allow wildlife populations to tolerate human presence and recreational activities.
---Recreational hunting, wildlife watching, and other outdoor activities with human disturbance


Steps in Management…

1- Baseline information on natural history and ecology of the species (population dynamics, habitat use, food habits, etc)
2- Population estimates & demographics (males : females; female : offspring, etc)
3- Survey & evaluation of important habitat components
4- Evaluate recreation impacts
--Hunting harvest
--Disturbance from hiking, camping, etc.
5- Management Actions
--Protection (from human impact)
--Supply limiting factors (food, cover, shelter, water, etc)
--Habitat manipulation
--People management


Management of Game Species

Sustainable Harvest
For the Hunter
Migrating Waterfowl
(Predator control in sensitive areas
Supplemental foods - feeds & plantings
Hunting improvements and accessories
Monitoring habitat destruction
Acquisition of nesting habitat)


Game mgmt: Sustainable Harvest

Additive or Compensatory mortality
Herd/population health
Correction/control harvest (males or females; both)
---Supplemental feeds
---Planted foods
Habitat manipulations (insure quality habitat)
---Brush control
---Increasing edge
---Prescribed fire


Game mgmt: White-tailed Deer

Population surveys
---Size, Reproduction, Trends
Habitat evaluation
Estimate of CC (carrying capacity)
Harvest management strategies to control populations and manage for desirable sex ratios, age structure, trophy characteristics
By state/federal agency and private landholders


Game mgmt: the Hunter

Population levels should be a compromise between ideal level for the animal and the ideal level for the hunter
Determine harvest levels
Seasons, bag limits, hunter restrictions


Game mgmt: Migrating Waterfowl

Population estimates
---Breeding birds
---Production estimates - nest surveys
Establish trends
Harvest management
---Season limits, bag limits, point system
Monitoring habitat and disturbance
Federal & International agencies
---Treaties with other nations (Canada, Mexico)


Non-game Management

Impact - where and what?
Population estimates
Population health
(Predator, Pest Control - e.g. cowbirds)
Habitat management
Protection, Buffers
People management
---Timing, etc.


Rattlesnake Round-ups, Rodeos

Festive affairs in which the capture, display, handling, milking, and killing of the animals is celebrated. Total exploitation of a wildlife species
“Texas Snake Man"
Date from the 1930s -1940s era.
~ 50 round-ups annually in 10 western states.
60,000 - 101,000 snakes may be harvested
Sweetwater, TX. 90 tons of snakes from 1958 - 1991.
Focus on the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.
Non-target species impacted as well
Professional and recreational collectors.
Collections are made in most traditional ways
Searching likely habitats, road riding, as well as gassing den sites.
Animal welfare concerns are high on the list.


Effects of Rattlesnake Roundups on the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake

Snakes decrease


Management Strategies of Roundups

Total protection granted, round-ups abolished until complete assessment is made - (?)
Dependable, scientific information gathered
Game status granted?
-Allows for season limits,
-Possession limits,
-Size limits
-Legal methods of capture, etc.


Introduction or Restoration

Suitability of animal for introduction or reintroduction
Legitimate source of animals
Why was the species extirpated? Is that issue still a problem?
Habitat suitability & quality
Protection - moratorium on hunting; establish conservation guidelines.


Nongame mgmt: Desert Big Horn

Extirpated from Texas
by 1960s – disease
Source of sheep
---New Mexico, Arizona
Captive breeding
Reintroduction to suitable habitat
Predator control
Moratorium on recreational use
Wildlife Restoration
Desert Big Horns
---Source of animals
Predator Control
Invasive species