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Flashcards in Manifestation Deck (13):
1

Local

-Mass
-Pain
-Obstruction
-Hemorrhage
-Pathological fx

2

Mass:

May be first discovered manifestation, depending on location

3

Pain:

produced by local destruction of tissue, invasion of nerves, obstruction of hollow organs, and causing inflammation (many are NOT painful)

4

Obstruction:

Passageways can by blocked by tumor growing within or from external compressioin by mass, symptoms depend on passages involved

5

Hemorrhage:

May ulcerate and bleed leading to acute or chronic blood loss

6

Pathologic Fx

Primary bone or metastatic cancer can invade and locally destroy bone, weakening it so that Fx may occur with minimal injury; some cancers can induce osteoporosis and thus cause Fx
-Breast, lung, prostate especially likely to metastasize to bone
-Multiple myeloma (bone marrow) can destroy adjacent bone

7

Systemic:

Spreads through whole body:
Infection:
Anemia
Cachexia

8

Local Level: Infection

erosion or ulceration of tumors of epithelial tissue may allow entry of microorganisms

9

Impaired host responses to infection (Infection)

-Leukopenia (decrease in WBC's)
-Leukocytes (in leukemia's and lymphomas) are deficient in phagoctic activity
-Inadequate nutrition

10

Anemia:

-Secondary to chemotherapy or radiation
-Bone marrow replacement by neoplastic cells
-Blood loss

11

Cachexia:

Generalized wasting; progressive loss of body fat and lean body mass accompanied by profound weakens, anorexia, anemia
-Anorexia
-Nutritional problems
-Demands of rapidly growing neoplasm

12

Hormone production:

A few neoplasms secrete hormones that lead to effects of excess hormone (usually benign neoplasms, some malignant)

13

Paraneoplastic syndrom:

Symptom complexes other than cachexia in pt's with CA that cannot be readily explained by local or distant spread of tumor or by hormones produced by tumor (tumor immune response that attacks normal tissue