Flashcards in Marian Religion Deck (13):
What has E. Duffy said about Marian England?
It was the closest thing in Europe to a laboratory for Counter-Reformation reform.
What are some of the traditional attitudes surrounding Marian religion?
It was backward-looking, unimaginative and reactionary. The focus was on force not persuasion.
G. Dickens - lacked high quality spiritual leadership.
What factors have shaped the negative attitudes?
John Foxe's 'Book of Martyrs' has been the most influential religious source of the period shaping contemporary views.
Edwardine iconoclasm destroyed material Catholicism.
Elizabethan censorship has clouded the work of the Catholic writers.
Did the Marian Church fail to recognise the importance of preaching?
No. Pole's Legatine Synod of 1555 outlined the importance of preaching. All bishops and archbishops were ordered to preach in person.
Where was the main preaching hotspot and who performed?
Paul's Cross, London (attendance in the thousands). Star preachers were John Feckenham, Richard Smith and Henry Cole.
Where else did preaching take place?
In the Protestant regions such as Essex and East Anglia. Thomas Tye in 1556 preached a series of sermons in Harwick reconciling 12 former gospellers.
How and why did Pole improve his own clergy?
He wanted to recruit bishops who had a track record of good pastoral care, were theologically informed and loyal to the Papacy. They were paid, resident and university educated: men like James Brookes (Master of Baliol) and Thomas Watson (Master of St John's). Aim was to inspire devotion in accordance with Tridentine Catholicism.
Pole rejected the Jesuits, is this true?
No. Firstly Loyola never offered an army of Jesuits, only 2 or 3 who'd use Roman teachings in England which was a waste. Pole had his own project - wanted an English seminary in Rome that would focus on English needs.
Was Pole a good leader?
Yes - he had clear agenda of preaching and pastoral care buttressed by an emerging educated clergy. He preached hard himself and even authored 'De Unitate' that offered a powerful defence of papal authority that was well-grounded in Scripture. He showed a genuine care of souls.
J. Loach has praised the Marian Church's use of the printing press, how effectively was it used?
Used very effectively - 1555 saw 132 books printed. Both printed material and the sermons at the pulpits were consistent. Most notable treatise was Archbishop Edmund Bonner's 'A profitable and necessary doctrine' of 1555 with accompanying 'Homilies' - offered a comprehensive statement of Catholic belief that was grounded in Biblical sources. Very comprehensive and learned - authorised nationally by Pole in 1556.
What other text did Bonner publish?
'An Honest Godly Instruction...' in 1556. It was a catechism that focused on the youth - a compact collection of Catholic fundamentals and easy to remember prayers (Hail Mary, Our Father) - doctrine made accessible.
Reflected Jesuit initiatives on the continent.
Were the burnings justified?
Too often viewed through lens of moral hindsight - both Edward and Elizabeth burned Catholics. Burnings were justified in political terms and through law (1555 heresy policy outlined).
Religion and politics were intertwined - conformity to faith = allegiance to regime. The (majority Protestant) Privy Council advocated burnings because the extremists were a threat to the regime.