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Flashcards in Mass Storage Deck (49):
1

What are the three Mass Storage connection types?

- PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment)
- SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
- SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)

2

If you have one PATA type HDD, what should you set the jumpers to?

When you have one PATA type HDD, you should set the jumpers to Master or Standalone.

3

If you have two PATA type HDD's, what should you set the jumpers to?

When you have two PATA type HDD's, you should set one to Master and one to Slave.

4

How do you know how to set the jumpers for a PATA HDD?

There should be a description on the HDD itself, otherwise search the manufacturers website.

5

How does cable select work on a PATA drive?

By setting the jumper to cable select, using a special Cable Select cable will determine which drive is the slave and which is the master.

6

What kind of power connector does a PATA type HDD use?

All PATA type HDD's use a Molex power cable.

7

What are two things to ensure when connecting a PATA type HDD?

- Ensure the Number 1 wire is connected to the Number 1 pin on the controller.
- The jumpers or cable select is correctly set.

8

Why does a SATA device not need to have Master, Slave, or Cable Select settings?

SATA only only supports one device per channel.

9

What are three considerations when installing or replacing an existing HDD with SSD?

- Does the current system use PATA or SATA. An SSD will require SATA connections.
- Do you have the appropriate drivers and firmware. Find out by checking the manufacturers specification.
- Is everything backed up!

10

What are four benefits of using SSD over HDD?

- SSD has no moving parts.
- SSD uses less energy.
- SSD has smaller Form Factors.
- SSD has little or no latency when accessing fragmented data.

11

What is SCSI?

SCSI is a fast Bus able to connect many peripherals but has been largely replaced by SATA.

12

What two things will allow drives to appear in CMOS through autodetection?

- Controllers (Drives) need to be enabled in CMOS settings.
- .The drive needs to be connected properly. (data and power)
*PATA will also require its jumpers to be set)

13

What does AHCI stand for?

AHCI stands for Advanced Host Controller Interface. The method that some motherboards use to control SATA HDD's.

14

What is the difference between CMOS and BIOS?

- BIOS is the firmware that starts a computer up.
- CMOS is where the BIOS stores the data (date, time, configuration).

15

What does 'Flashing the BIOS' mean.

Flashing the BIOS means upgrading the BIOS or Firmware.

16

What is Partitioning?

Partitioning is the process of electronically subdividing the physical Hard Drive into groups of cylinders called partitions (or volumes).

17

After partitioning a drive, it must be formatted. What does formatting do?

Formatting installs a File System that organises each partition so the Operating System can store files and folders on the drive.

18

What do you call a drive that uses the MBR partitioning scheme.

A drive that uses this partitioning method is called a 'basic disk'.

19

What do you call a drive that uses Microsoft's dynamic storage partitioning scheme.

A drive that uses the dynamic storage partitioning scheme is called a 'dynamic disk'.

20

What are the two small data structures created on a basic disk?

- MBR (Master Boot Record).
- partition table.

21

What does the MBR record do?

The MBR record looks for a partition with an operating system.

22

What does a partition table do?

A partition table tells the master boot record where to look.

23

What two types of partition are supported by the partition table?

- Primary Partition (for bootable operating systems).
- Extended Partitions (non bootable).

24

How do you identify different partitions?

Microsoft OS's (DOS and Windows) traditionally assign drive letters from C: to Z: (Extended partitions do not get drive letters).

25

What do you create within an extended partition?

You create 'logical drives' within an extended partition, and assign letters from D: to Z: (C: is reserved for the first primary partition in Windows).

26

How do you access multiple OS's stored in primary partitions on a single drive?

The active partition must be turned on for the appropriate partition. (If OS's are on different drives, the CMOS settings will define which drive is the current bootable drive).

27

What is a volume boot sector?

Each partition in the partition table has a volume boot sector which stores information that is important to it's partition, such as the location of the OS boot files.

28

How many partitions can you create?

You can create a max of four partitions which can include a max of one extended partition. (An extended partition can be chopped in to many logical drives. Mounted drives can also be mounted as folders on an existing drive).

29

What term does a Dynamic Disk use instead of partition?

A Dynamic Disk' uses the term Volume instead of partition. There is no primary or extended equivalent.

30

Dynamic Disk allows spanning of a volume, what is a Spanned Volume?

A Spanned Volume can join up to 32 drives in a single volume.

31

Does a dynamic disk use an MBR and partition table?

Yes, a dynamic disk uses an MBR and partition table but only for backward compatibility. All information about a dynamic disk is stored in a hidden partition at the last 1 MB of the hard drive that only the BIOS can access.

32

What are the two main times you are likely to require partitioning?

- When you are installing an OS on a new system.
- When adding a drive to an existing system.

33

What is FAT?

FAT (File Allocation Table) is like a two column table where the left column gives each sector a Hex number. The right gives the status of a sector.
FAT16 from 0000 to FFFF. (16 bits)

34

What is a Cluster?

A cluster refers to combining a set of continuous FAT sectors and treating them as a single unit. In a cluster, the status of one cluster will lead to another cluster until it reaches a cluster with end of file cluster status.

35

What actually happens when you delete something.

When you delete something, the first cluster changes its status to indicate it can be overwritten. The information is actually still there until it is overwritten.

36

What improvements came with the release of FAT32?

- FAT32 supports partitions up to 2 terabytes.
- FAT32 clusters can be smaller because of the additional entries that can be used.

37

What is the current file system format of choice?

The current file system format of choice is NTFS (New Technology File System) It is old but has many different updated versions.

38

What is NTFS's MFT?

NTFS's MFT (Master File Table) is an enhanced file allocation table. There is an immovable backup copy on the drive.

39

How does NFTS provide security?

NFTS provides security using the ACL (Access Control List) feature, limiting certain file access for other users.
NFTS also provides encryption abilities which makes files unreadable to other users.

40

What size partitions does NTFS support?

- basic disk: 2 TB.
- dynamic disk: 16 TB.

41

What is a Striped volume?

A striped volume is where blocks of the same file are spread over multiple disks.

42

What are two things error checking does? (ScanDisk / CHKDSK)

- error checking looks for bad clusters and lets the system know not to place data on them.
- looks for invalid or missing filenames and tries to fix or deletes them.

43

What does Defragmenting do?

Defragmenting re organises your clusters more efficiently.

44

What does Disk Cleanup do?

Disk Cleanup empties the recycle bin, deletes temporary internet files, and other temporary files.

45

What are the four steps to installing a drive?

- Connecting it.
- Setting its CMOS values.
- Partitioning it.
- Formatting it.

46

What is FDISK used for?

The command line program FDISK.exe is used to partition older systems.

47

What is Disk Management for?

Disk Management is used to manage partitions and volumes on most current systems.

48

How much data can be held in a Sector?

One sector can hold up to 512 bytes of data.

49

What are the three variations of FAT?

- FAT12 (Floppy Drives)
- FAT16
- FAT32