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Flashcards in MCI & Triage Deck (47):
1

What does a MCI do?

Overwhelms resources (equipment, rescuers, facilities) available in a system or area

2

Types of Mass Casualty Incidents

Natural disasters
Technical hazards
Civil-Political

3

Examples of Natural Disaster MCIs

Extreme heat/cold
Fires
Floods
Earthquakes
Tropical storms and hurricanes
Tornados
Epidemics

4

Examples of Technical Hazard MCIs

Building collapse
High rise incidents
Hazardous materials incidents
Transportation accidents
Major industrial accidents

5

Examples of Ciliv-Political MCIs

Civil disobedience: demonstrations, strikes, riots
Criminal or terrorist incidents: mass shootings, hostage situation, explosive, chemical, biological, nuclear
Military attack on the US

6

What does an incident management system allow?

Effective control, direction, and coordination of response resources

7

Influencing Factos of an Incident Management System

Magnitude of event
Available resources

8

Components of Magnitude of Event

Number of patients
Area
Boundaries: open or closed

9

Components of Available Resources

Response and support personnel
Vehicles and equipment
Facilities

10

Categories of Mass Casualty Incidents

Expanded medical incident
Major medical incident
Disaster
Catastrophe

11

Define Expanded Medical Incident

Prehospital resources adequate
Hospital capacity adequate

12

Define Major Medical Incident

Multi-jurisdictional and regional EMS response
Regional allocation of patients to hospitals

13

Define Disaster

Overwhelms local, multi-jurisdictional, and regional mutual aid
Requires assistance from state, interstate, or federal resources

14

Define Catastrophe

Overwhelms local, multi-jurisdictional, regional and state resources
Interstate and federal resources needed
Local resources concentrate on own survival

15

Goals of MCI Management

Greatest good for greatest number
Scarce resource management
Don't relocate disaster

16

Components of Doing the Greatest Good

Make the best of possible use of available resources
Salvage the most patients as possible
NO heroic resuscitation
Concentrate on those we can save

17

Components of Resource Management

Call for extra resources early
Prepare for delays
Use command hospitals to coordinate with other hospitals and transportation decisions

18

5 S's of MCI

Safety assessment
Scene safety
Send information
Setup
START

19

Safety Assessment of MCI's

Fire
Electrical hazard
Flammable liquids
Hazardous materials
Other life threats and hazards to rescuers

20

Scene Safety of MCI's

Type of incident
Approximate number of patients
Severity of injuries
Area involved and access

21

Send Information of MCI's

Contact dispatch with survey information
Request resources and mutual aid
Notify command hospital

22

Setup of MCIs

Medical group supervision
Triage
Treatment
Transportation
Extrication
Staging
Medical supply
Medical communications

23

First EMS Provider Setup

Establishes medical group
Directs triage of all patients
Assigns resources as available
Key functions running

24

Transport Decisions in Setup

Patient prioritization
Destination facilities
Transportation resources

25

What does START stand for in MCIs?

S: simple
T: triage
A: and
R: rapid
T: treatment

26

Define Triage

To sort
Separates patients needing rapid care

27

Problems with Triage

Reliance on specific diagnosis to put patients in categories
Too slow

28

Ideal Triage System

Simple
No advanced skills
No specific diagnosis
Easy to do
Rapid and simple life-threatening intervention
Easy to teach and learn

29

What is the START system based on?

RPM
R: respirations
P: perfusion
M: mental status

30

Virginia Triage Tag System

Red: immediate
Yellow: delayed
Green: minor
Black: dead

31

Conditions for a Red Tag

Poor respiration, perfusion, mental status
Severe burns

32

Conditions for a Yellow Tag

Burns
Major or multiple bone or back injuries

33

Conditions for a Green Tag

Minor painful, swollen deformities
Minor soft tissue injuries
"Walking wounded"

34

Conditions for a Black Tag

Deceased
Non-salveable

35

START First Steps

Begin where you stand
Move all who can walk
Move in a pattern
Assess using START and place tags
Keep count of casualties
Provide MINIMAL treatment
Keep moving

36

Respiration Assessment: Open Airway

Black: doesn't breath
Red: starts to breath

37

Respiration Assessment: Breathing

Red: RR >30
Next: RR less than 30
Maintain airway

38

Perfusion Assessment: Radial Pulse

Red: absent
Next: present
Stop gross hemorrhage

39

Mental Status Assessment: Commands

Red: doesn't follow commands
Yellow: follows commands

40

Purpose of Treatment

Identify specific injury
Categorize patients
Prioritize for transport

41

Treatment: Reassessment and Tagging Complete

On way to treatment
In treatment area
In ambulance

42

Secondary Triage Within Initial Triage Groups

More subjective
Based on specific condition and experience

43

Secondary Triage of Red Tagged Patients

Life threatening injury
Risk of asphyxiation or shock
High probability of survival
Can be stabilized

44

Secondary Triage of Yellow Tagged Patients

Potentially life threatening
Severely debilitating injury
Can stand a delay in treatment and transport

45

Secondary Triage of Green Tagged Patients

Non life threatening injuries
Minimal care with minimal risk

46

Secondary Triage of Black Tagged Patients

Deceased at site, en route to treatment area, or in treatment area
Unresponsive with no circulation

47

Reverse Triage

Lightening injuries
Dead treated first
High potential for respiratory arrest