MCM: CIS #1 Flashcards Preview

Molecular And Cellular Mechanisms (MCM) > MCM: CIS #1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in MCM: CIS #1 Deck (28):
1

Malnutrition:

Kwashiorkor

What are the characteristics of?

*Severe protein deficiency

-EDEMA of hands and feet
-Distended abdomen

-Light colored skin
-Thinning hair
-Shiny skin
-Anemia
-Irritable
-Enlarged fatty liver
-Ulcerating dermatoses

2

Malnutrition:

Marasmus

What are the characteristics of?

*Severe energy depletion

-Protein-cal deficiency
-Diarrhea
-Respiratory infections
-Intellectual disability
-Apathy
-No energy
-Weight is less than 62% of expected

3

Metabolic syndrome:

Xanthelasma Palpebrarum

Caused by : High levels of blood lipids

*IDed as fatty deposits around the eyes

4

Metabolic syndrome:

Corneal Arcus

Caused by: fat deposits deep in the edge of the cornea

*IDed as a light ring around the iris

5

Acanthosis Nigricans

Dark, velvety patches of skin often appear in the armpits, groin, and neck

-Acanthosis nigricans typically occurs in people who are obese or have diabetes

6

What is included in a SOAP note?

-Subjective
-Objective
-Assessment
-Plan

7

What are the normal lab values for:

Glucose (fasting):
Total Cholesterol:
HDL:
LDL:
Triglycerides:


Glucose (fasting): 70-110
Total Cholesterol: <200
HDL: 30-75
LDL: <130
Triglycerides: <150

8

What is STEATOSIS?

Fatty liver

9

MSUD?

Metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC)

leading to a buildup of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine

10

How to treat MSUD?

Low protein diet

11

Hartnup disease?

-Unable to absorb nonpolar aa; tryptophan
-Sx: red, scaly skin rash when exposed to light, photosensitivity, short stature, uncoordinated movements

12

PKU?

Caused by Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency

Sx: Intellectual disorders, seizures, musty smelling urine/sweat

Tx: low protein diet

13

Albanism?

Caused by absence or defect in TYROSINASE

Sx: Sunburns/skin cancer, photophobia, nystagmus

14

Deficiency in:

Galactokinase

-Juvenile cataracts
-Decreased conversion of galactose to galactose-1-phosphat

15

Deficiency in:

Dihydropteridine reductase

-Impaired renewal of tetrahydrobiopterin
-Decreased levels of dopamine, serotonin and folate

Sx:
-Psychomotor delay, hypotonia, seizures, too much salivation, swallowing difficulties

16

Deficiency in:

Galactosylceramidase

*KRABBE'S DISEASE

-Impairment of the GALC gene
-important component of myelin

Sx:
-Hypertonia, impaired development, blindness, seizures, eating problems, deafness

17

Deficiency in:

GALT (galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase)

-Unable to metabolize galactose/lactose into glucose

Sx:
-Jaundice, lethargy, failure to thrive, liver damage, sepsis, cataracts

Tx: eliminate lactose and galactose from the diet

18

Deficiency in:

Galacitol

GALACITOL is NOT an enzyme; it is a substance which causes cataracts in people with galactosemia

19

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin A:

-Night blindness
-Xerophthalmia (failure to produce tears)
-Major player in phototransduction

20

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin B1

(Thiamine)

-Malaise, Weight loss, confusion, BERI BERI, wernicke-korsakoff

21

Vitamin deficiencies:

B12

Fatigue, inflammation of the tongue, numbness/tingling

***MEGOBLASTIC ANEMIA

22

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin C

SCURVY

-Pale or yellowish skin
-Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
-muscle weakness
-Gum redness/overgrowth

23

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin K

-Easy bruising
-Oozing from nose or gums
-Excessive bleeding from injuries
-Heavy menstrual periods
-COMES FROM GREEN SHIT

24

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin

-Cheilosis
-Corneal vascularization
-itchy, watery, bloodshot eyes
-anemia

25

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin B3

Niacin

-Pellagra: Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

26

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine

-Microcytic anemia
-Cheilosis
-Neuro issues; depression, confusion
-adrenal deficiency

27

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin D

Subtle to none sx.

Risks:
-Increased risk of death from CV
-Cognitive impairment in older adults
-Severe asthma in children
-Cancer

28

Vitamin deficiencies:

Vitamin E

Sx:

Peripheral neuropathy, Retinopathy, Infertility