Flashcards in MCQs Deck (72):
Gray’s Type 1 synapses are ___________ while Gray’s Type 2 synapses are____________.
The action potential depends on the presence of extracellular ___________.
Antagonists of which receptor are used as antiemetics, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics?
_________ is actively concentrated inside the cell and __________ outside.
Potassium in, Sodium and Calcium out
________________ is/are an example of a catecholamine neurotransmitter.
DA, NE, Epi
In general, which segment of a GPCR is responsible for specificity of the receptor?
3rd intracellular loop
The neurons of the substantia nigra are ____________ and contain the pigment ___________.
_____________ is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain and __________ is the major inhibitory transmitter.
Glutamate and GABA
Hodgkin and Huxley found that the resting membrane potential of the inside versus the outside of the axon is ___________.
Endocannabinoids are ___________________.
hydrophobic, retrograde messengers,
found on both GABA and Glutamate nerve endings
What is Neurotensin?
Peptide neurotransmitter that requires calcium to be released.
Muscarinic ACh receptors are both _____
Presynaptic and postsynaptic
In mammals, at membrane potentials negative to –102 mV, K+ ions tend to flow ____ the cell; increasing the membrane conductance to K+ causes the membrane potential to become more ___________.
Calcium currents ______________.
contribute to electrophysiological processes.
are important for 2nd messenger systems
________________ is involved in the enzymatic degradation of catecholamines.
Of the types of neuroglia, ___________ play a role in nerve growth while ___________ serve immune functions for neurons in the brain.
The blood-brain barrier is formed by the encapsulation of ____________ by ___________ which creates selective permeation into the brain tissue.
Purinergic receptors are ________ that bind ATP and __________.
Which of these ions are permeated through 5HT3 ionotropic receptors?
The basic structure of a neuron includes a cell body, a variable number of __________, and a single _________.
In the periphery, ______________ are the primary immune support for neurons.
Cystic fibrosis is caused by a mutation of a ____________ channel.
Which part of a neuron is responsible for generating action potential?
Which of the following are important for the Nernst equation?
temperature, ionic concentration outside and inside the cell.
Myelin is synthesized in the periphery by _____________ and in the CNS by ___________.
Schwann cells; oligodendrocytes
The GABAA receptor is ____________ and is selective for __________.
The rate of acetylcholine synthesis is determined by ______________.
Tetraethylammonium (TEA) selectively blocks voltage-dependent _______ currents.
Curare works by binding to the postsynaptic receptor for which neurotransmitter?
In general, GPCRs are comprised of ____________ polypeptide (s) and spans the membrane ________ times.
The active zone of a presynaptic neuron contains numerous ______________, and the membrane of this area is densely packed with ______________.
synaptic vesicles; calcium channels
Norepinephrine is converted to epinephrine by ________________.
The nicotinic receptor, GABAA receptor, and the 5HT3 receptor are all
Protein zero is the primary building block of
Vesicular monoamine transporters are inhibited by _______________.
The ____________ determines the quantity and connections that a neuron makes.
NOS is activated by ________________.
Ca++ binding to calmodulin
The capillary endothelial cells in the brain contribute to the blood-brain barrier through use of
The ____________ refers to the membrane potential following an action potential that typically becomes more negative than the original value.
Which enzyme that catalyzes monoamine synthesis is found in dopamine neurons?
GABAergic interneurons of the cerebellar and cerebral cortex are fall into which category of neurons?
inhibitory with local contacts
Which of these is a connection between populations of neurons projecting from one brain region to another?
The synaptic cleft is bounded on one side by the presynaptic ____________ and the other with the postsynaptic _________.
terminal bouton; dendrites
Muscarinic ACh and beta adrenergic receptors are
Action potentials are produced through an increase in ________ conductance followed by an increase in ________ conductance.
Low threshold calcium currents have a threshold of ________ mV.
Neurons that spontaneously generate action potentials at low frequencies (1-10 Hz) are associated with ____________.
NMDA receptors require which of these in order to open their channels?
glutamate binding and depolarization
The nicotinic receptor is selectively permeable to ___________ due to its structure creating a _________ charged pore.
The brain accounts for _______ percent of the total serotonin found in the body.
The membrane potential where there is no net flow of ions is known as ____________.
The voltage-sensitive K+ current that regulates the responsiveness of the neuron to depolarizing inputs is known as the _____ current.
D1-like receptors _________ adenylate cyclase and D2-like receptors _________ adenylate cyclase.
Prozac works by blocking _____________.
DAT and SERT
Neuropeptide receptors are
When a GPCR is activated, it couples to a _____________ initiating the exchange of ______________.
G-protein; GDP for GTP
Dopamine is converted to norepinephrine by ________________.
Catacholamines are release peripherally by___________________.
Calcium ion permeability of neuronal nicotinic receptors is__________ compared to muscle nicotinic receptors?
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) selectively blocks voltage-dependent _______ currents.
High threshold calcium channels have ____ homologous domains, each with ____ regions.
Which of these are excitatory projection neurons?
A single GPCR can activate _______ G-protein (s).
Acetycholinesterase is responsible for the____________ of acetylcholine.
Which of these is a local inhibitory interneuron of the cerebral cortex?
basket cell, double bouquet, chandelier cell
Action potential transmission in myelinated neurons propagates very rapidly due to its ability to ‘leap’ down the axon on the ___________ that occur between ___________.
Nodes of Ranvier; myelin internodes
Glycine receptors are __________ located in the spinal cord and brain stem and are selectively permeable to _________.
inhibitory; calcium ions
Nicotinic receptors open in response to the binding of _____ acetylcholine molecules that produces a conformational change in the _______ subunit.
Desensitization of GPCRs occurs when PKA or PKC _________ sites on the _______ intracellular loop.
High-affinity neuronal reuptake of neurotransmitters requires ______.
Na+ K+ Cl-
The absolute refractory period is mediated by the inactivation of ____channels.