Flashcards in McQuarrie Chapter 2 - Theories of Industrial Relations Deck (19):
What is a craft guild?
A craft guild is an association of workers of the same trade, formed for mutual benefit (such as shared workshops).
Name some types of skilled craftspeople.
Weavers, woodworkers, metalworkers, and potters (Harry Potter not included).
Why were craft guilds formed?
From fees paid to the guild, they created a form of unemployment insurance.
They also provided a form of quality control for products, and educated their members.
What major societal changes happened in the Industrial Revolution?
New technology reduced the need for skilled labour. Workers could thus be more easily replaced.
Production increased dramatically. Massive migration to cities.
Transportation improved (could now market materials and goods at great distances).
Control over work passed to employers from workers.
Describe the poor working conditions that came about as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Owners had little consideration for safety.
Almost no protection - sick or injured workers were usually fired.
Why did modern trade unions develop?
Mostly as a result of the poor working conditions brought about during the Industrial Revolution.
Sidney and Beatrice Webb say it was to "improve members' lives" and that unions were a response to the fact that capitalists could now exploit labour to maximize return on investment.
What are the names of the 3 Webb methods used by unions to achieve their goals?
1. Method of mutual insurance.
2. Method of collective bargaining
3. Method of legal enactment
What are 2 devices used by unions to ensure they truly represent members?
1. Device of the common rule
2. Device of restriction of numbers (i.e. members must be qualified to join)
What did Selig Perlman say was the reason for union formation?
That unions arose from the emergence of capitalism.
What did Selig Perlman say unions needed in order to be successful?
The support of the middle class.
How did John Commons explain the emergence of unions?
That they were a response to changes in the economic system and changes in the structure of work.
He argued that competitive markets drove the formation of unions, which he says help ensure that competition in markets was based on contribution to making quality products.
What are the 4 functional types of unionism?
1. Business unionism, which aims to protect workers in a particular occupation
2. Friendly or uplifting unionism, which aims to improve the standard of living of members
3. Revolutionary unionism, which attempts change through large-scale political action
4. Predatory unionism, which aims to increase its own power by whatever means possible
What 5 factors make up the standards of successful living?
1. Social status - well respected by others, especially management
2. Creature comforts - similar standard of living among members
3. Control - a formal voice via collective agreement and grievance system
4. Information - provides information regarding the right actions
5. Integrity - self-respect and fairness, by enhancing a sense of integrity
Who are the 3 "actors" in Dunlop's Industrial Relations System?
1. Government / Private Agencies
According to Dunlop, what are the 4 contexts within which the actors interact?
How did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels see unions?
As a means by which workers could avoid exploitation by the upper classes.
What are 2 methods of increasing management control?
Deskilling (specializing or subdividing a task to reduce the need for a skilled worker), and controlling the methods by which work is done and its pace.
According to Braverman, what is the result of deskilling?
More production for less pay.