Flashcards in Measurement Deck (123):
What are three dimensional qualities that can be measured?
Repeatability, Temporal Extent, Temporal Locus`
What is the AKA for Repeatability?
What is repeatability?
When a behavior can be counted. Instances of a response class occur repeatedly through time
What are three types of Repeatability Measures?
Count, Rate and Celeration
What is count?
Add up the behaviors or items. Best used when the time is the observation is constant
What does count tell us about a behavior intervention program?
Not a lot. On it's own, doesn't give us the information we need.
What is rate?
This is added up behaviors over time. This is also known as Frequency
What is the most popular data method in ABA?
In what ways can you represent frequency?
per second, per minute, per hour, per day, per week, per month, per year.
What happens if the unit of time is not standard throughout a study?
Then a comparison cannot be made
When should you use rate?
When you are using a free operant behavior: has a definite beginning and end.
When should you NOT use rate?
If the behavior happens within limited/restricted conditions or is a continuous behavior that goes on for a while
What is celeration?
Count per unit of time/time or Frequency/time. This measures how rates of responding change over time.
How many measures of rate is recommended for celeration?
What is temporal extent?
Duration of behavior
When do you use duration?
When you are interested in how long the behavior takes place. This could be used for behaviors that happen too much or too little.
What are two methods for calculating duration?
Total Duration per session, duration-per-occurence
What is total duration per session?
Cumulative amount of time that the client engages in the behavior in the total session.
What is duration per occurrence?
The Duration of time each behavior occurs, standing alone.
What is temporal locus?
Measuring the time at which behavior occurs. Looks at when a behavior occurs in respect to other events.
What are two types of Temporal Locus Measures?
response Latency, Interresponse Time
What is Latency?
The amount of time that passes between an Sd and a response.
When should you use latency?
when you are looking at how much time occurs between the opportunity to emit a behavior and the actual behavior
What is Interresponse time?
The amount of time that goes by between responses. This is functionally related to rate of response.
When should Interresponse time be used?
When the time between responses is important.
What are two derrivative measures?
Percentage and Trial-to-Criterion.
What is the recommended minimum observation intervals for percentage?
What are advantages of percentages?
You can use it when you want to document the correct percentage
What are disadvantages of percentages?
Cannot be used to record proficiency or fluency, imposes lower and upper limits on data
What is trials to criterion?
How many opportunities it takes to reach a set criteria
What elements of measurement can you use when calculating trials to criterion?
count, rate, duration and latency
What are two definitional measures?
Topography and magnitude
What is topography?
The form or shape of a response.
When do you use topography?
When the form (what the behavior looks like) matters. (i.e. playing basketball, etc.)
Why is topography said to be a malleable dimension of behavior?
Responses can be shaped by consquences
What is the relationship between topographies and functions?
They isn't one! Behaviors can have different topographies but the same function or vice-versa.
What is magnitude?
The force, intensity or severity of a behavior.
What is continuous Measurement procedure?
Measuring so that all instances of the behavior in question are detected in the observation period.
What data collection methods are considered continuous?
Event recording (frequency, rate), Timings (duration, IRT
What are some advantages to Continuous Methods?
Useful for behaviors that have a clear beginning and end
behaviors that can be emitted at any time.
Does not require much time for completeion
What are some disadvantages for continuous methods?
Not useful for bx that occurs at high rates
measured via discrete trial
Bx that is opportunity based
Bx that can occur for an extended period of time.
What is discontinuous measurement procedures?
A type of measurment in which some aspects of the behavior may not be captured.
What are some examples of discontinuous measures?
Time Sampling, interval recording
what are some advantages of discontinuous measures?
Useful for behaviors that occur at high rates, long durations of time, measured via discrete trial/percentage
What are some disadvantages of discontinuous measures?
No useful for behaviors that are free operant, important to capture all aspects, require constant attending
What are three procedures for measuring behavior?
Event Recording, Timing, Time Sampling
What is event recording?
Recording the number of time an event happens.
How can you use event recording?
Paper and pencil, counter, masking tape, buttons, etc.
What is a free operant behavior?
One that has a clear beginning and end
What are some advantages of event recording?
Pretty accurate, great with free operant behaviors, Simple to implement (can do while conducting other activities)
What are some disadvantages of event recording?
Cannot be used with behaviors that are continuous or occur at high rates
What can be measured with timing?
Duration, latetncy, IRT. Used with a stop watch
Time sampling is AKA:
What is Time Sampling?
A way to record behavior in intervals or at specific times. They give us an approximation of behavior.
How do you implement time sampling?
Divide the chunk of time into smaller, equal intervals. Then, record in each interval if the behavior happened or not.
What are some advantages to Time Sampling?
Great for behaviors that occur at high rates.
What are some disadvantages to Time sampling?
Do not use when the behaviors are infrequent or the single occurrence of the behavior is important.
What are three types of time sampling?
Whole Interval, Partial Interval and Momentary Time Sampling
Does Whole Interval underestimate or overestimate behavior?
How do you implement Whole interval time sampling?
Divide the observation period into brief, equal intervals (10-15 seconds).
At the end of the interval, record if the behavior happened THROUGHOUT the ENTIRE interval.
How do you report Whole Interval/Partial Interval data?
With percentages (i.e. 5 whole intervals out of 10 total intervals= 50%)
What are the advantages of whole interval procedure?
Great for behaviors that you want to INCREASE.
What are some disadvantages to Whole Interval?
Not good for behaviors you want to decrease. You must watch the behavior for the whole period of time.
How do you implement partial interval procedure?
Divide the observation into equal and brief intervals.
At the end of the interval, record if the behavior happened AT ANY TIME during the interval.
Does Partial interval overestimate or underestimate rate of a behavior?
What are some advantages of Partial Interval?
Easy to implement, Used when you want to DECREASE a behavior,
What are some disadvantages of Partial interval?
Not good for behaviors that you wish to increase. Must observe the behavior throughout the entire session.
Does Momentary Time Sampling overestimate behavior or underestimate behavior?
Both or neither.
How do you implement Momentary Time Sampling?
Divide observation period into equal and brief intervals.
At the end of the interval, record if the behavior occurred AT THAT MOMENT.
How do you report Momentary Time Sampling?
What are some advantages of momentary Time sampling?
You do not have to observe the behavior for the entire interval, only the end.
What are some disadvantages to momentary Time sampling?
You miss a lot of the behavior that occurs in the interval.
How do you control for missing behavior in Momentary Time Sampling?
Make the intervals shorter and observe frequently.
A Planned Activity Check is AKA:
What is a Planned Activity Check?
A type of momentary time sampling for groups
Permanent Product is AKA
What is Permanent Product?
Measuring behavior by it's effect the behavior produces on the environment.
What is ex post facto measurement?
When the measurement occurs after the behavior has occurred.
Can behaviors that do not have a direct effect on the environment be measured with permanent product?
Yes- through video tapes, photos, audiotapes, etc. These are contrived.
What are advantages of permanent product measurment?
Easy for inconvenient behaviors
Faciliates IOA and treatment integrity
What are disadvantages of permanent product measurements?
The end result is there, but it is unknown how the client got there
What three questions should you ask yourself before using Permanent product?
1- Is the outcome what you're worried about? Or is it the mediating behaviors?
2- Is permanent product a way of measuring this behavior?
3- Is real time measurement needed?
What are 5 rules when using Permanent Product?
1- Each instance of behavior must produce the same permanent product
2- The permanent product can only be produced by the target bx
3. Only the participant can behave in a way that results in PP
4. The PP can result in ONLY the target behavior
5. Is reactivity an issue here?
What is a Contrived permanent Product?
When you use video tape, audio tape, etc. Not as natural, may cause reactvity.
Reactivity is temporary or permanent?
Why must you be careful when planning your observations?
Because you want to truly capture the target behavior
What are some things to consider when observing the target behavior?
time of day, day of the week, weather, task, MO's, etc.
What are three indicators of trustworthiness in measurment?
Validity, Integrity and Reliability
What is Validity?
When measurement yields data that are directly relevant to the phenomenon measured and the reasons for measuring it.
What are three elements of validity?
Directly measures socially significant behavior
Measuring dimension of the target behavior that relates to the question
Data is representative of the behaviors occurrence, across time/conditions, etc.
What are threats to validity?
Indirect measurements (secondhand info, private events
Measuring the wrong dimension of behavior
What are three measurement artifacts?
Discontinuous measurement, Poorly schedule observation periods, Insensitive and/or limiting measurement scales
What is accuracy?
the extent in which the Observed value is the true value of an event
What is true Value?
The fact that all possible sources of error have been removed.
What is reliability?
The same results are repeated
Valid Data must be....
Accurate and Reliable
What is the biggest threat to accuracy and reliability?
What are three factors that contribute to Human error?
Poor training, Poor expectations of what the behavior looks like, poorly designed measurement systems
What is observer drift?
When observeres unknowingly alter the way they observe and measure behavior
How do you minimize Observer Drift?
Retrain observers frequently. Possibly video tape sessions
What is measurment bias?
Data that overestimates or underestimates the true value of an event.
Should you use naive observers?
Yes. This minimized measurement bias.
What is observer reactivity?
When you, as an observer, know that someone is recording you or also recording the behavior. It influences you to be more correct with your data.
What is Interobserver agreement? IOA
When 2 or more observers report the same findings after observing the same event
What are the benefits of IOA?
determines competence in observers,
Detects observer drift
Increase or decrease confidence that the target bx is clear and measurment code is not too hard
Implies that changes in data are actually from changes in behavior- not observers
What are three rules of obtaining valid IOA?
Observers must use:
same measurment system
Be independent of each other
Measure the same event
What are four methods of collecting IOA data for Event Recording?
Total Count, Mean Count-per interval, Exact Count, Trail-by-Trial
What are 2 methods of IOA data for Timing and Duration?
Total Duration IOA, Mean Duration IOA
What are 3 methods of IOA for time sampling, Interval Recording?
Interval-by- Interval, Scored Interval, Unscored Interval
How do you find Total Count IOA?
This is the simplest method:
Look at the total data. Smaller number/larger number X100
How do you calculate the Mean-Counter-per Interval IOA?
Find the total data for the interval (small/large).
Int 1 +Int 2 +Int N / total number of Intervals
How do you calculate the Exact-Count-Per Interval Data?
Find the percentage of intervals in which the observers recorded the SAME COUNT.
# of same count intervals/Total Intervals X100
Which Interval IOA is the strictest?
Exact-Count Per Interval
How do you calculate Trial by Trial IOA?
The intervals need to be a yes/no or 1/0.
Total numbers of agreement/Total Number X100
How do you calculate Total Duration IOA?
Shorter Duration/Longer Duration * 100
How do you calculate the Mean Duration (IRT) per occurrence IOA?
Calculate the Duration for each interval. Then find the mean of those intervals
How do you calculate Interval-by-Interval IOA with time sampling?
Number of intervals that both people agree on 100%/total number *100
Interval-by-Interval IOA is AKA
point by point IOA, Point by point agreement ratio
How do you calculate Scored Interval IOA?
The interval must have a yes/no or 1/0.
#of intervals both people recorded an occurence/# of occurences at least ONE person noted *100
How do you calculate an Unscored Interval IOA?
# of intervals both recorders see non-occurrence/ # of intervals that at least ONE person records non-occurence
How often should IOA be taken in a study?
At minimum of 20%. This is across phases, days, times, etc.
How should IOA be reported?
Narrative: Most common, describing mean and range