Flashcards in Measurements For Nutritional Deficiency Deck (14):
List the common causes of iron deficiency
Physiological - demand, eg growing children
Pathological - inadequate intake, blood loss, malabsorption (eg coeliac)
What are the main causes of iron overload
Can be hereditary - HFE haemochromotosis, non HFE haemochromotosis
Or can be acquired - caused by iron loading anemias, chronic liver disease (hepatitis b or c, alcoholic liver),
or fatty liver (steatosis)
What is the role of ferritin in the body? In what type of anemia can it be elevated?
Ferritin is mobilizable stored iron, also an acute phase reactant which is elevated in anemia of inflammation.
Can be falsely elevated in patients with anemia of inflammation AND iron deficiency
What is the role of transferrin
Transport of iron
What is the role of 'soluble transferrin receptor' and what happens to its levels in iron deficiency and why?
Expressed by all cells, allows uptake of iron.
Is upregulated in iron deficiency to enable cells to compete for available iron
What is the role of vitamin C in relation to iron
Vitamin c aids the absorption of iron
What are the stages leading to iron deficiency anemia and what are the characteristics of each
Iron depletion - Hb normal, ferritin low but above 10ug/L
Iron deficiency - Hb normal, ferritin
What is Hepcidin and what does it do?
Hepcidin is a peptide hormone. It regulates iron storage and transport by reducing the concentration of the transmembrane iron transporter ferroportin. This reduces dietary iron absorption, reduces iron exit from macrophages and reduces iron exit from the liver.
What are symptoms of iron deficiency?
It's often asymptomatic but you're more likely to get symptoms if also anaemiac. These could inclue weakness, headache, irritability, fatigue and brittle nails.
What is the most common cause of iron overload?
HFE-haemochromatosis type 1
What does a biochemical assessment or iron include?
-Ferritin - reflects iron stores
-% transferrin saturation
What test results would you see in iron overload?
Increased transferrin saturation, maybe increased ferritin
What is a vitamin?
Any group of organic compound, which are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because the body cannot synthesize them