Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma Deck (20):

mechanical injury

- a force when applied to any part of the body results in a harmful disturbance in function
- external: outside forces, contact injuries
- internal: non-contact injuries


mechanical forces that can cause injury

- compression: two areas being pushed together
- tension: two ends being pulled apart
- shear: surfaces rub horizontally across each other
- bending: brekaing collar bone, partially and bone bends


extrinsic and intrinsic factors

- extrinsic: coaching, environmental factors, protective equipment, specific demands

- intrinsic: muscle imbalance, postural defects, inadequate warm up, overuse, poor technique, age


soft tissue trauma

- non bony tissue
- contractile muscle and tendon. AROM
- non contractile: skin, joint capsules, ligaments, fascia, cartilage, dura mater, nerve roots. PROM


forces injuring the skin

- friction (rubbing): blisters
- shearing: strawberries
- compression (pressure): bruise
- tearing (laceration): flap of skin
- cutting
- puncturing


wound classification

- friction blister: friction causing fluid build up under the epidermis
- abrasion: skin is scraped across a rough surface
- skin bruise (ecchymosis): compressive forces causes bleeding under skin
- laceration: skin has been irregularly torn
- skin avulsion: tissue is ripped from its source
- incision: sharply cut
- puncture: penetration with sharp object


acute muscle injuries

- contusion: simple bruise or with hematoma
- strains: gr1- mild tearing. gr2-moderate tear 50% fibers torn. gr3->50%


tendon injuries

- tendonitis: tendon is sore, inflamed
- tendonosis: tendon is degenerating, looks thicker cuz of scare tissue
- tenosynovitis: passing through synovial fluid
- tendon rupture: non contact, it pops because of stress


joint capsular problems

- joint capsule: dense irregular connective tissue
- capsular tears: subluxation- partial tear
dislocation- completely
- capsulitis: frozen shoulder


musculoskeletal injury

- ligaments: dense regular connective tissue
- sprains gr1- mild. gr2- more pain, les moving, feel laxity. gr3- totally tearing, should have medial meniscus injury


synovial membrane pathology

- synovium: fluid that lubricates the joint
- synovitis: irritate and temporarily blow up with synovial fluid
- lupus: seeing synovial tissue as foreign and some organs
- rheumatoid arthirits: controlled then flares up
- JRA: can come in middle school/high school


hyaline cartilage

- hard, translucent, high in amount of collagen and proteoglycan
- covers end of long bones
- no blood supply, won't heal



- composed of bundles of thick clearly defined collagen fibers
- found in symphyseal joints, intervertebral disks and in articular cartilage
- meniscus


elastic cartilage

- similar to hyaline but has elastic fibers instead
- locations: auricular cartilage in ear, ligamentum flavum, ligamentum nuchae
- can buckle with age


cancellous bone (trabecular, spongy)

- 20% of human skeleton
- provides structural support and flexibility without the weight of compact bone


common fractures

- oblique: at a diagonal
- communited: breaks into pieces
- spiral: diagonal across more than one plane
- greenstick: happens in kids, bone is like a wet branch
- impacted/compacted
- avulsion: piece of tendon is still attached to bone
- stress fracture: linear cracks in the bone from receptive stress
- pathological: bony tumor, comes from cancer


salter harris classification

- type 1: separation- complete separation of epiphyseal plate
- type2: fracture/separation of growth plate with small wedge
- type3: transverse & perpendicular fracture resulting in piece of bone that breaks off
- type4: broken piece extending into the shaft of the bone, usually requires surgery
- type5: crushing of the plate


apophysitis: severs disease

only get this in your growing years, get inflammation..overuse of achilles tendon


osgood schlatters disease

weakening in the growth plate


nerve injuries

- etiology: compression or forceful over stretching
- neuropraxia: (gr1) pressing on nerve to shut it down and get tinging sensation
- axontotmesis: (gr2) los sensation and strength for weeks or months. prolonged weakness
- neurotmesis: (gr3) full blown crush of nerve