Flashcards in Mechanisms of Defense Deck (48):
the state of being immune or insusceptible to a particular disease or the like
the condition that permits either natural or acquired resistance to disease
the ability of a cell to react immunologically in the presence of an antigen
what protects animals against microbial invasion?
the immune system
what mechanisms are needed to ensure freedom from invasion?
physical barriers, innate immunity, and adaptive immunity
what excludes invaders?
what provides rapid initial protection?
what provides prolonged effective immunity?
what mediates adaptive immunity against bacterial invaders?
proteins that circulate in body fluids, especially in the bloodstream, that bind to bacteria and mark them for destruction
what form of adaptive immunity is mainly directed against viruses?
employs cells that destroy abnormal cells such as those infected by viruses
what immune system can remember prior exposure to foreign invaders and mount a faster and more effective response on subsequent exposure to that invader?
adaptive immune system
what three major barriers protect an animal's body against microbial invasion?
physical barriers, innate immunity, adaptive immunity
examples of physical barriers?
skin, self-cleaning, normal flora
examples of innate immunity?
inflammation, defensins, lysozyme
examples of adaptive immunity?
antibody production, cell-mediated immunity
what provides immediate protection?
what provides rapid protection that keeps microbial invaders at bay?
how long does it take for adaptive immunity to become effective?
several days or even weeks
what is non-specific immunity?
what is specific immunity?
immune response is not dependent on the antigen (non-antigen specific)
immune response is immediate (Rapid)
immune response does not leave any memory (exceptions exist)
immune response is antigen-specific
immune response is delayed in time
immune response leaves memory
what can the innate immune system be divided into?
cells that largely eat and kill invaders and the molecules that bind and kill the invaders
what do cells of the innate immune system do?
detect invaders, eat invaders, kill invaders, kill virus-infected cells
what do molecules of the innate immune system do?
bind and kill invaders, coat invaders so cells can kill them, block microbial growth, prevent microbial spread, mobilize body defenses
what is the production of immune cells?
what are the three major lineages of hematopoiesis?
erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid
erythrocytes and platelets
granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils), mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells
lymphocytes (T and B cells), Natural killer (NK) cells
what is adaptive immunity mediated by?
lymphocytes mainly found within lymphoid organs
where do lymphocytes arise from?
stem cells in the bone marrow
where do lymphocytes mature?
within primary lymphoid organs
what are the only cells in the body capable of specifically recognizing and distinguishing different antigens?
what is responsible for adaptive immune response, specificity and memory?
what has different functions and protein products but morphologically indisguishable?
in birds, where do B lymphocytes mature?
bursa of fabricius
in mammals, where do B lymphocytes mature?
where do T lymphocytes precursors arise from?
where do T lymphocytes mature?
what are subsets of T lymphocytes?
helper T lymphocytes (Th) and cytotoxic lymphocytes