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Flashcards in Mechanisms of Defense Deck (48):
1

Immunity

the state of being immune or insusceptible to a particular disease or the like

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the condition that permits either natural or acquired resistance to disease

immunity

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the ability of a cell to react immunologically in the presence of an antigen

immunity

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what protects animals against microbial invasion?

the immune system

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what mechanisms are needed to ensure freedom from invasion?

physical barriers, innate immunity, and adaptive immunity

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what excludes invaders?

physical barriers

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what provides rapid initial protection?

innate immunity

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what provides prolonged effective immunity?

adaptive immunity

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what mediates adaptive immunity against bacterial invaders?

antibodies

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antibodies

proteins that circulate in body fluids, especially in the bloodstream, that bind to bacteria and mark them for destruction

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what form of adaptive immunity is mainly directed against viruses?

cell-mediated immunity

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cell-mediated immunity

employs cells that destroy abnormal cells such as those infected by viruses

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what immune system can remember prior exposure to foreign invaders and mount a faster and more effective response on subsequent exposure to that invader?

adaptive immune system

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what three major barriers protect an animal's body against microbial invasion?

physical barriers, innate immunity, adaptive immunity

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examples of physical barriers?

skin, self-cleaning, normal flora

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examples of innate immunity?

inflammation, defensins, lysozyme

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examples of adaptive immunity?

antibody production, cell-mediated immunity

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what provides immediate protection?

physical barriers

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what provides rapid protection that keeps microbial invaders at bay?

innate mechanisms

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how long does it take for adaptive immunity to become effective?

several days or even weeks

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what is non-specific immunity?

innate immunity

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what is specific immunity?

adaptive immunity

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immune response is not dependent on the antigen (non-antigen specific)

innate immunity

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immune response is immediate (Rapid)

innate immunity

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immune response does not leave any memory (exceptions exist)

innate immunity

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immune response is antigen-specific

adaptive immunity

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immune response is delayed in time

adaptive immunity

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immune response leaves memory

adaptive immunity

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what can the innate immune system be divided into?

cells that largely eat and kill invaders and the molecules that bind and kill the invaders

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what do cells of the innate immune system do?

detect invaders, eat invaders, kill invaders, kill virus-infected cells

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what do molecules of the innate immune system do?

bind and kill invaders, coat invaders so cells can kill them, block microbial growth, prevent microbial spread, mobilize body defenses

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what is the production of immune cells?

hematopoiesis

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what are the three major lineages of hematopoiesis?

erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid

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erythroid

erythrocytes and platelets

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myeloid

granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils), mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells

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lymphoid

lymphocytes (T and B cells), Natural killer (NK) cells

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what is adaptive immunity mediated by?

lymphocytes mainly found within lymphoid organs

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where do lymphocytes arise from?

stem cells in the bone marrow

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where do lymphocytes mature?

within primary lymphoid organs

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what are the only cells in the body capable of specifically recognizing and distinguishing different antigens?

lymphocytes

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what is responsible for adaptive immune response, specificity and memory?

lymphocytes

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what has different functions and protein products but morphologically indisguishable?

lymphocytes

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in birds, where do B lymphocytes mature?

bursa of fabricius

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in mammals, where do B lymphocytes mature?

bone marrow

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where do T lymphocytes precursors arise from?

bone marrow

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where do T lymphocytes mature?

thymus

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what are subsets of T lymphocytes?

helper T lymphocytes (Th) and cytotoxic lymphocytes

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if newly developed lymphocytes have receptors for ______ that could potentially cause tissue damage, they are killed before they can leave primary lymphoid organs.

self antigens