Mechanisms of Deglutiton and Phonation: The Pharynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mechanisms of Deglutiton and Phonation: The Pharynx Deck (76):
1

The superior end of the respiratory and digestive tubes and is active in the process of deglutition (swallowing)

Pharynx

2

The pharynx forms the posteriolateral walls of the

Nasal and oral cavities, and the larynx

3

the pharngeal wall consists of which five layers from external to internal?

1.) Buccopharyngeal fascia
2.) Muscle layer
3.) Pharyngobasilar fascia
4.) Submucosa
5.) Mucous membrane

4

The muscle layer is made up of which two parts?

1.) Outter circular part
2.) Inner longitudinal part

5

The outer circular part of the muscle layer is the

Constrictors

6

What are the three muscles of the inner longitudinal layer?

Palatopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus, and stylopharyngeus

7

Covers the muscles externally and forms the posterior layer of the pretrachial fascia

Buccopharyngeal fascia

8

Covers the muscles internally and helps anchor the pharynx to the base of the skull

Pharyngobasilar fascia

9

The constrictors are three overlapping skeletal muscles that form the outer circular muscle layer and constricts the pharyngeal wall during swallowing. What are these three muscles?

Superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles

10

What are the origins of the superior constrictor muscle?

PTerygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, and mandible

11

What is the insertion of ALL THREE constrictors?

Median Raphe

12

What are the origins of the middle constrictor?

Stylohyoid ligament and hyoid bone

13

What are the origins of the inferior constrictor muscle?

Thyroid and cricoid cartilages

14

What is the innervation of the three constrictor muscles?

Pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve

15

Three skeletal muscles that form the inner muscle layer of the pharynx and serve to elevate the pharynx during swallowing

Longitudinal muscles of the pharynx

16

As the longitudinal muscles elevate the pharynx, what happens to the pharynx?

It widens and shortens

17

What is the insertion of ALL THREE longitudinal muscles?

Thyroid cartilage and pharyngeal wall

18

What is the origin of the palatopharyngeus?

Soft Palate

19

What is the origin of the Salpingopharyngeus?

Auditory tube

20

What is the origin of the stylopharyngeus?

Styloid process

21

The palatopharyngeus and salpingopharyngeus are BOTH innervated by the

Pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve

22

The stylopharyngeus is innervated by the

Glossopharyngeal nerve

23

How many gaps associate with the pharynx that transmit structures to the internal compartments of the pharynx?

Four

24

Located between the base of the skull and the superior constrictor muscle

Gap 1

25

Located between the superior and middle constrictor muscles

Gap 2

26

Located between the middle and inferior constrictor muscles

Gap 3

27

Located between the inferior constrictor muscle and the esophagus

Gap 4

28

When you go through gap 1, what compartment do you enter?

Nasopharynx

29

When you go through gap 2, what compartment do you enter?

Oropharynx

30

When you go through gaps 3 and 4, what compartment do you enter?

Laryngopharynx

31

What does gap 1 transmit?

Cartilaginous part of auditory tube, levator palati muscle, and ascending palatine artery

32

What does gap 2 transmit?

Stylopharyngeus muscle, glossopharyngeal nerve, stylohyoid ligament

33

What does gap 3 transmit?

Internal laryngeal nerve, and the superior laryngeal artery and vein

34

What does gap 4 transmit?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior laryngeal artery and vein

35

What are the 3 pharyngeal compartments?

Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx

36

What is the superior boundary of the nasopharynx?

Roof of nasal cavity

37

What is the inferior boundary of the nasopharynx?

Soft palat

38

What is the superior boundary of the Oropharynx?

Soft palate

39

What is the inferior boundary of the Oropharynx?

Epiglottis

40

What is the superior boundary of the Laryngopharynx?

Epiglottis

41

What is the inferior boundary of the Laryngopharynx?

Esophagus

42

What is the function of the nasopharynx?

Respiratory

43

What is the function of the Oropharynx and LAryngopharynx?

Digestion

44

The pharyngeal tonsils, auditory tube, ascending palatine artery, levator palati, tensor palati, and salpingopharyngeus muscle are all structures of the

Nasopharynx

45

The palatine tonsils, uvula, palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arch, epiglottis, stylopharyngeus muscle, and GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL nerve are all structures of the

Oropharynx

46

The piriform recess, internal and recurrent laryngeal nerves, and superior and inferior laryngeal avs are all major structures of the

Laryngopharynx

47

Deglutition is a complex process in which food is masticated, formed into a bolus, and passed from oral cavity to pharynx to esophagus to stomach. It involves cranial nerves

V, VII, IX, X, and XII

48

Deglutition is divided into which two phases?

1.) Voluntary
2.) Involuntary

49

What is phase one?

Food is chewed, saliva is secreted, tongue moves food around the mouth forming a bolus, and tongue pushes bolus to pharyngeal mucosa (where it begins phase 2)

50

The food is chewed using the muscles of mastication which are controlled by

CN V

51

The position of food between the molars is maintained by

Sensory fibers of the cheek (CN V) and buccinator muscle (CN VII)

52

Saliva is secreted by the parotid, which is controlled by

CN IX

53

Serve to moisten the food and begin the digestive process

Submandibular and sublingual glands (CN VII)

54

The food is tasted on the tongue by

CNs VII and IX

55

The tongue moves the moistened food around in the mouth forming a bolus by pressing it against the hard and soft palates. This is controlled by

CN XII

56

In phase II, the bolus of the food contacting the pharyngeal mucosa initiates a

Reflex response

57

Stimulates a number of motor responses

Sensory limb of reflex (CN IX)

58

What are the three motor responses stimulated by the sensory limb of the reflex in phase II?

1.) Sealing off the nasopharynx
2.) Sealing off the larynx
3.) Preparing the pharynx to receive the bolus

59

The sealing off of the nasopharynx prevents food from entering the nasal cavity and is done by contracting

Levator palati (CN X) and Tensor Palati (CN V)

60

Sealing off of the larynx is done by?

Elevating the hyoid bone (CN V, VII) and larynx (CN IX, X) and using the tongue to push the epiglottis over the larynx (CN XII)

61

When the pharynx is elevated it becomes shorter and wider, thus more receptive to the

Food bolus

62

When the bolus enters the pharynx, the pharynx moves the bolus posterior to the larynx and esophagus by beginning a series of

Peristaltic-like contractions (CN X)

63

In phase 1, what is the sensory function of CN V?

Food position in mouth and on tongue

64

In phase I, what is the MOTOR function of CN V

Mastication

65

In Phase I, what is the SENSORY function of CN VII

Taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue

66

In phase I, what is the MOTOR function of CN VII

Purses lips

67

In phase I, what is the secretomotor function of CN VII

Submandibular and sublingual gland secretion

68

In phase I, what is the SENSORY function of CN IX

Senses presence of bolus on pharynx and tongue

69

In phase I, what is the SPECIAL SENSORY function of CN IX

Taste on posterior 1/3 of tongue

70

In phase I, what is the MOTOR function of CN XII

Tongue movement forming bolus and pushing it posteriorly

71

In phase II, what is the MOTOR function f CN V?

Elevation of hyoid, tenses soft palate

72

In phase II, what is the MOTOR function of CN VII

Elevation of hyoid

73

In phase II, what is the SENSORY function of CN IX?

Sense presence of bolus on pharynx and initiates swallow reflex

74

In phase II, what is the MOTOR function of CN IX?

Elevation of pharynx via stylopharyngeus muscle

75

In phase II, what is the MOTOR function of CN X?

Elevation of soft palate, elevation, shortening, and widening of pharynx

76

In phase II, what is the MOTOR function of CN XII?

Tongue movement pushing bolus posteriorly causing epiglottis to close over larynx

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