Flashcards in Mechanisms of Deglutiton and Phonation: The Pharynx Deck (76):
The superior end of the respiratory and digestive tubes and is active in the process of deglutition (swallowing)
The pharynx forms the posteriolateral walls of the
Nasal and oral cavities, and the larynx
the pharngeal wall consists of which five layers from external to internal?
1.) Buccopharyngeal fascia
2.) Muscle layer
3.) Pharyngobasilar fascia
5.) Mucous membrane
The muscle layer is made up of which two parts?
1.) Outter circular part
2.) Inner longitudinal part
The outer circular part of the muscle layer is the
What are the three muscles of the inner longitudinal layer?
Palatopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus, and stylopharyngeus
Covers the muscles externally and forms the posterior layer of the pretrachial fascia
Covers the muscles internally and helps anchor the pharynx to the base of the skull
The constrictors are three overlapping skeletal muscles that form the outer circular muscle layer and constricts the pharyngeal wall during swallowing. What are these three muscles?
Superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles
What are the origins of the superior constrictor muscle?
PTerygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, and mandible
What is the insertion of ALL THREE constrictors?
What are the origins of the middle constrictor?
Stylohyoid ligament and hyoid bone
What are the origins of the inferior constrictor muscle?
Thyroid and cricoid cartilages
What is the innervation of the three constrictor muscles?
Pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve
Three skeletal muscles that form the inner muscle layer of the pharynx and serve to elevate the pharynx during swallowing
Longitudinal muscles of the pharynx
As the longitudinal muscles elevate the pharynx, what happens to the pharynx?
It widens and shortens
What is the insertion of ALL THREE longitudinal muscles?
Thyroid cartilage and pharyngeal wall
What is the origin of the palatopharyngeus?
What is the origin of the Salpingopharyngeus?
What is the origin of the stylopharyngeus?
The palatopharyngeus and salpingopharyngeus are BOTH innervated by the
Pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve
The stylopharyngeus is innervated by the
How many gaps associate with the pharynx that transmit structures to the internal compartments of the pharynx?
Located between the base of the skull and the superior constrictor muscle
Located between the superior and middle constrictor muscles
Located between the middle and inferior constrictor muscles
Located between the inferior constrictor muscle and the esophagus
When you go through gap 1, what compartment do you enter?
When you go through gap 2, what compartment do you enter?
When you go through gaps 3 and 4, what compartment do you enter?
What does gap 1 transmit?
Cartilaginous part of auditory tube, levator palati muscle, and ascending palatine artery
What does gap 2 transmit?
Stylopharyngeus muscle, glossopharyngeal nerve, stylohyoid ligament
What does gap 3 transmit?
Internal laryngeal nerve, and the superior laryngeal artery and vein
What does gap 4 transmit?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior laryngeal artery and vein
What are the 3 pharyngeal compartments?
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx
What is the superior boundary of the nasopharynx?
Roof of nasal cavity
What is the inferior boundary of the nasopharynx?
What is the superior boundary of the Oropharynx?
What is the inferior boundary of the Oropharynx?
What is the superior boundary of the Laryngopharynx?
What is the inferior boundary of the Laryngopharynx?
What is the function of the nasopharynx?
What is the function of the Oropharynx and LAryngopharynx?
The pharyngeal tonsils, auditory tube, ascending palatine artery, levator palati, tensor palati, and salpingopharyngeus muscle are all structures of the
The palatine tonsils, uvula, palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arch, epiglottis, stylopharyngeus muscle, and GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL nerve are all structures of the
The piriform recess, internal and recurrent laryngeal nerves, and superior and inferior laryngeal avs are all major structures of the
Deglutition is a complex process in which food is masticated, formed into a bolus, and passed from oral cavity to pharynx to esophagus to stomach. It involves cranial nerves
V, VII, IX, X, and XII
Deglutition is divided into which two phases?
What is phase one?
Food is chewed, saliva is secreted, tongue moves food around the mouth forming a bolus, and tongue pushes bolus to pharyngeal mucosa (where it begins phase 2)
The food is chewed using the muscles of mastication which are controlled by
The position of food between the molars is maintained by
Sensory fibers of the cheek (CN V) and buccinator muscle (CN VII)
Saliva is secreted by the parotid, which is controlled by
Serve to moisten the food and begin the digestive process
Submandibular and sublingual glands (CN VII)
The food is tasted on the tongue by
CNs VII and IX
The tongue moves the moistened food around in the mouth forming a bolus by pressing it against the hard and soft palates. This is controlled by
In phase II, the bolus of the food contacting the pharyngeal mucosa initiates a
Stimulates a number of motor responses
Sensory limb of reflex (CN IX)
What are the three motor responses stimulated by the sensory limb of the reflex in phase II?
1.) Sealing off the nasopharynx
2.) Sealing off the larynx
3.) Preparing the pharynx to receive the bolus
The sealing off of the nasopharynx prevents food from entering the nasal cavity and is done by contracting
Levator palati (CN X) and Tensor Palati (CN V)
Sealing off of the larynx is done by?
Elevating the hyoid bone (CN V, VII) and larynx (CN IX, X) and using the tongue to push the epiglottis over the larynx (CN XII)
When the pharynx is elevated it becomes shorter and wider, thus more receptive to the
When the bolus enters the pharynx, the pharynx moves the bolus posterior to the larynx and esophagus by beginning a series of
Peristaltic-like contractions (CN X)
In phase 1, what is the sensory function of CN V?
Food position in mouth and on tongue
In phase I, what is the MOTOR function of CN V
In Phase I, what is the SENSORY function of CN VII
Taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue
In phase I, what is the MOTOR function of CN VII
In phase I, what is the secretomotor function of CN VII
Submandibular and sublingual gland secretion
In phase I, what is the SENSORY function of CN IX
Senses presence of bolus on pharynx and tongue
In phase I, what is the SPECIAL SENSORY function of CN IX
Taste on posterior 1/3 of tongue
In phase I, what is the MOTOR function of CN XII
Tongue movement forming bolus and pushing it posteriorly
In phase II, what is the MOTOR function f CN V?
Elevation of hyoid, tenses soft palate
In phase II, what is the MOTOR function of CN VII
Elevation of hyoid
In phase II, what is the SENSORY function of CN IX?
Sense presence of bolus on pharynx and initiates swallow reflex
In phase II, what is the MOTOR function of CN IX?
Elevation of pharynx via stylopharyngeus muscle
In phase II, what is the MOTOR function of CN X?
Elevation of soft palate, elevation, shortening, and widening of pharynx