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Flashcards in Med Term 10 Deck (214):
1

includes the brain and the spinal cord

central nervous system (CNS)

2

includes the 12 pairs of cranial nerves extending from the brain and the 31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves extending outward from the spinal cord

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

3

one or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spindal cord with other parts of the body

nerve

4

a bundle or group of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord

tract

5

carry nerve impulses toward the brain

ascending nerve tracts

6

carry nerve impulses away from the brain

descending nerve tracts

7

a nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

ganglion

8

means the supply of nerves to a specific body part

innervation

9

a network of intersecting spinal nerves

plexus

10

sites in the sensory organs that receive external stimulation

receptors

11

anything that excites a nerve and causes an impulse

stimulus

12

an automatic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body

reflex

13

the basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other

neurons

14

neurons that emerge from sensory organs and the skin to carry the impulses from the sensory organs toward the brain and spinal cord

afferent neurons (Ace), aka sensory neurons (Sam)

15

these neurons link sensory and motor neurons

connecting neurons (aCe), aka associative neurons (sAm)

16

these neurons carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord and toward the muscles and glands

efferent neurons (acE), aka motor neurons (saM)

17

the root-like processes that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body

dendrites

18

a process that extends away from the cell body and conducts impulses away from the nerve cell. can be more than 3 feet long

axon

19

the branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nervous impulse from the axon to the synapse

terminal end fibers

20

the space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ.

synapse

21

chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor

neurotransmitters

22

provide support and protection for neurons, and their four main functions are surround neurons/hold them in place, supply nutrients and O2 to neurons, to insulate one from another, and to destroy and remove dead neurons

glial cells

23

the protective covering made up of glial cells, a white sheath that forms the white matter of the brain, and covers some parts of the spinal cord and the axon of most peripheral nerves

myelin sheath

24

the system of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord of the CNS, consist of 3 layers of connective tissues

meninges

25

the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges

dura mater

26

the second layer of the meninges that resembles a spider web

arachnoid membrane

27

the third layer of the meninges, and is located nearest to the brain and spinal cord, consists of delicate connective tissue that contains a rich supply of blood vessels

pia mater

28

produced by special capillaries within the four ventricles located in the middle region of the cerebrum, clear, colorless, watery fluid

cerebrospinal fluid, aka spinal fluid

29

the largest and uppermost portion of the brain, responsible for thought, judgement, memory, emotion, controlling and integrating motor and sensory functions

cerebrum

30

means pertaining to the cerebrum or to the brain

cerebral

31

means brain

cerebr/o

32

created by the division of the cerebrum and are connected at the lower midpoint by the corpus callosum

cerebral hemispheres

33

subdivisions of each cerebral hemisphere, each named for the bone of the cranium that covers it

cerebral lobes

34

produces sensations by relaying impulses to and from the cerebrum and the sense organs of the body, located below the cerebrum

thalamus

35

located below the thalamus, has 7 major regulatory functions

hypothalamus

36

the second largest part of the brain, located at the back of the head below the posterior portion of the cerebrum

cerebellum

37

the stalk-like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord, made of 3 parts

brainstem

38

provide conduction pathways to and from the higher and lower centers in the brain, also control reflexes for movements of the eyes and head in response to stimuli

midbrain and pons

39

connected to the spinal cord, located at the lowest part of the brainstem. controls basic survival functions, including respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting

medulla

40

a long, fragile tube-like structure that begins at the end of the brain stem and continues down almost to the bottom of the spinal column

spinal cord

41

12 pair of nerves that originate from the undersurface of the brain. each 2 in a pair have identical function and each nerve of a pair serves half of the body

cranial nerves

42

31 pairs of nerves that are grouped together, and named based on the region of the body they innervate

peripheral nerves

43

controls the involuntary actions of the body such as functioning of internal organs. organized into two divisions, which balance each other

autonomic nervous system

44

nervous system that prepares the body for emergencies and stress by increasing breathing rate, heart rate, and blood flow to muscles

sympathetic nervous system

45

nervous system that returns the body to normal after a response to stress, also maintains normal body functions during ordinary circumstances

parasympathetic nervous system

46

a physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents before and during surgery

anesthesiologist

47

means feeling

esthesi/o, esthst/o

48

a medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician

anesthetist

49

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system

neurologist

50

means nerve

neur/o

51

a physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system

neurosurgeon

52

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness

psychiatrist

53

means mind

psych/o

54

holds and advanced degree, but is not a medical doctor. evaluates and treats emotional problems and mental illness

psychologist

55

means specialist

-iatrist, -ologist

56

pain in the head

cephalalgia, aka headache

57

characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head, can be preceded by a warning aura

migraine headache

58

intensely painful headaches that affect one side of the head and may be associated with tearing of the eyes and nasal congestion, affect primarily men

cluster headaches

59

a congenital herniation of brain tissue through a gap in the skull

encephalocele, aka craniocele

60

means brain

encephal/o

61

the congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column

meningocele

62

means meninges

mening/o

63

a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain

hydrocephalus

64

means water

hydr/o

65

an inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord, can be fatal, usually bacteria or viral caused

meningitis

66

a group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language. marked by progressive deterioration that affects both memory and reasoning capabilities

Alzheimer's disease

67

describes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory

cognition

68

a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgement, often accompanied by personality changes

dementia

69

and inflammation of the brain, can be caused by a viral infection such as rabies

encephalitis

70

a chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, and slow or shuffling gait

Parkinson's disease

71

a potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting and confusion. usually follows viral infections in which the child was given aspirin

Reye's syndrome

72

an acute and potentially fatal fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria

tetanus

73

a memory disturbance characterized by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences. can be caused by brain injury, illness, or psychological disturbance

amnesia

74

a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain

concussion

75

means shaken together

concuss/o

76

the bruising of brain tissue as the result of a head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull

cerebral contusion

77

a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain

cranial hematoma

78

a blow to the head or penetrating head injury that damages the brain

traumatic brain injury

79

describes the results of a child being violently shaken by someone. can cause brain injury, blindness, fractures, seizures, paralysis, and death

shaken baby syndrome

80

terms used to describe alterations of consciousness caused by injury, disease, or substances such as medication, drugs, or alcohol

levels of consciousness (LOC)

81

the state of being awake, alert, aware, and responding appropriately

conscious

82

the state of being unaware and unable to respond to any stimuli including pain

unconscious

83

a lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apathy

lethargy

84

an unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly and with vigorous, repeated attempts

stupor

85

the brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain

syncope

86

a profound state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, and lack of speech

coma

87

a type of coma in which the patient exhibits alternating sleep and wake cycles; however, due to severe damage to certain areas of the brain, the person is unconscious even when appearing to be awake

persistent vegetative state

88

an acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, agitation, and hallucinations

delirium

89

an abnormal growth located inside the skull

brain tumor

90

the amount of pressure inside the skull

intracranial pressure

91

damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood vessel is either blocked or has ruptured

cerebrovascular accident, aka stroke, or CVA

92

occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked, and is the most common type of stroke in older people

ischemic stroke

93

the temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain. passes within less than an hour, but is often a warning sign of increased risk to stroke

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

94

the loss of the ability to speak, write, and/or comprehend the written or spoken word. often caused by brain damage associated with stroke

aphasia

95

occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks

hemorrhagic stroke, aka bleed

96

the prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep. usually a symptom of another problem

insomnia

97

means sleep

somn/o

98

a sleep disorder consisting of sudden and uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day

narcolepsy

99

means stupor

narc/o

100

means seizure

-lepsy

101

a sufficient lack of restorative sleep over cumulative period so as to cause physical or psychiatric symtoms and affect routine performance or tasks

sleep deprivation

102

the condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening

somnambulism

103

means to walk

ambul/o

104

an inflammation of the spinal cord

myelitis

105

means spinal cord

myel/o

106

a tumor of the spinal cord

myelosis

107

a highly contagious form of myelitis that is a viral disease with no cure, but can be prevented by a vaccine

poliomyelitis

108

injury to the spinal cord

spinal cord injury

109

an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb

radiculitis

110

means root or nerve root

radicul/o

111

nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region

cervical radiculophathy

112

nerve pain in the lower back caused by muscle spasms or by nerve root irritation from the compression of vertebral disks such as a herniated disk

lumbar radiculopathy

113

a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath, can scar the brain, spinal cord, optic nerves and disrupts nerve impulses. also causes pain

multiple sclerosis

114

a rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles, patients become progressively weaker to paralysis and then death

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, aka Lou Gehrig's disease

115

the temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected side of the face

Bell's palsy

116

an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that can lead to temporary paralysis

Guillain-Barre syndrome

117

inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, and tingling along the course of the affected sciatic nerve through the thigh, leg, and foot

sciatica

118

characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve. sudden, intense, and brief attacks of sharp pain that affect the cheek, lips, and gums only on the side of the face innervated by the affected nerve

trigeminal neuralgia

119

a condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects the cerebrum

cerebral palsy

120

a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severity

epilepsy

121

a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time. occur in varying levels of severity

seizure

122

persistent, sever burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve

causalgia

123

means burning

caus/o

124

pain that occurs after an injury to an arm or a leg, heart attack, stroke, or other medical problem

complex regional pain syndrome

125

a condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli

hyperesthesia

126

means sensation or feeling

-esthesia

127

a disorder of the nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord. produces pain, loss of sensation, and inability to control muscles

peripheral neuropathy

128

a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable feelings in the legs, producing a strong urge to move them

restless legs syndrome (RLS)

129

important neuroimaging tools because they facilitate the examination of the soft tissue structures of the brain and spinal cord

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT)

130

an ultrasound study of the carotid artery

carotid ultrasonography

131

the use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain

echoencephalography

132

means beyond

ultra-

133

means sound

son/o, ech/o

134

the process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp

electroencephalography

135

a radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a lumbar puncture

myelography

136

the process of obtaining a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to withdraw fluid

lumbar punture, aka spinal tap

137

a barbiturate used as a sedative and hypnotic

amobarbital

138

depresses the central nervous system and usually produces sleep

hypnotic

139

administered to prevent seizures such as those associated with epilepsy

anticonvulsant

140

a class of drugs whose major action is calming or depressed effect on the central nervous system

barbiturates

141

a barbiturate used as a sedative and as an anticonvulsant

phenobarbital

142

depresses the central nervous system to produce calm and diminished responsiveness without producing sleep

sedative

143

the absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain, that is induced by the administration of an anesthetic

anesthesia

144

the medication used to induce anesthesia

anesthetic

145

regional anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine

epidural anesthesia

146

surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure disorders that cannot be controlled with medication

lobectomy

147

a surgical incision into the thalamus, primarily performed to quiet tremors of Parkinson's disease

thalamotomy

148

means thalamus

thalam/o

149

the surgical repair of a nerve or nerves

neuroplasty

150

surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve

neurorrhaphy

151

a surgical incision or the dissection of a nerve

neurotomy

152

mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations, or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation

anxiety disorders

153

characterized by chronic anxiety plus exaggerated worry and tension even when there is little or nothing to provoke these feelings

generalized anxiety disorder

154

an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unwanted obsessions and/or recurrent compulsions

obsessive-compulsive disorder

155

an anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes known as panic attacks

panic disorder

156

characterized by a group of intense emotional feelings that include apprehension, fearfulness, and terror

panic attack

157

may develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the individual or someone else, during which the person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror

posttraumatic stress disorder

158

a persistent irrational fear of a specific thing or situation, strong enough to cause significant distress, to interfere with functioning, and to lead to the avoidance of the thing or situation that causes this reaction

phobia

159

excessive fear of being in high places

acrophobia

160

means top

acr/o

161

means abnormal fear

-phobia

162

an excessive fear of situations in which having a panic attack seems likely and/or dangerous or embarrassing

agoraphobia

163

means marketplace

agor/a

164

an excessive fear of spiders

arachnophobia

165

means spider

arachn/o

166

an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces

claustrophobia

167

means barrier

claustr/o

168

describes a group of conditions in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships, compulsively follows repetitive routines, and frequently has poor communication skills

autism

169

characterized by a short attention span and impulsive behavior that is inappropriate for the child's developmental age

attention deficit disorder (ADD)

170

a learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols

dyslexia

171

disorders found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills such as processing language or grasping mathematical concepts

learning disabilities

172

a diagnosis consisting of below-average intellectual functioning, significant deficits in adaptive functioning, and onset during the developmental period of life (before 18)

mental retardation

173

occur when normal thought is separated from consciousness

dissociative disorders

174

a mental illness characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personalities

dissociative identity disorder

175

a condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when they really don't

factitious disorder

176

a form of child abuse, caused by a parent falsifying a condition or illness of a childhood, resulting in treatment or even surgery for that child

factitious disorder by proxy

177

a group of psychiatric disorders characterized by the inability to resist an impulse despite potential negative consequences

impulse-control disorders

178

a disorder characterized by repeatedly stealing objects neither for personal use nor for monetary gain

kleptomania

179

a disorder characterized by repeated, deliberate fire setting

pyromania

180

means to steal

klept/o

181

means madness

-mania

182

means fire

pyr/o

183

a disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hair

trichotillomania

184

a condition characterized by cycles of severe mood changes shifting from highs and severe lows that affect a person's attitude, energy, and ability to function

bipolar disporder

185

includes an abnormally elevated mood state, including inappropriate elation, increased irritability, severe insomnia, poor judgement, and inappropriate social behavior

manic behavior

186

a common mood disorder characterized by lethargy and sadness, as well as loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities

depression

187

a low-grade chronic depression with symtoms that are milder than those of severe depression but are present on a majority of days for 2 or more years

dysthymia

188

a seasonal bout of depression associated with the decrease in hours of daylight during winter months

seasonal affective disorder

189

a chronic pattern of inner experience and behavior that causes serious problems with relationships and work

personality disorder

190

characterized by the loss of contact with reality and deterioration of normal social functioning

psychotic disorder

191

means mind

thym/o

192

marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, and a tendency to remain in a fixed posture

catatonic behavior

193

a false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary

delusion

194

a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulation

hallucination

195

a psychotic disorder usually characterized by withdrawal from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, and hallucinations, and accompanied in varying degrees by other emotional, behavioral, or intellectual disturbances

schizophrenia

196

characterized by physical complaints or concerns about one's body that are out of proportion to any physical findings or disease

somatoform disorder

197

characterized by serious temporary or ongoing changes in function, such as paralysis or blindness, that are triggered by psychological factors rather than any physical cause

conversion disorder

198

characterized by fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance

hypochondriasis

199

characterized by the intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms

malingering

200

the addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, medications, or illegal drugs

substance abuse

201

a chronic alcohol dependence with specific signs and symptoms upon withdrawal

alcoholism

202

a disorder involving sudden and severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping the use of alcohol

delirium tremens

203

administered to prevent or relieve depression

antidepressant

204

administered to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood that are associated with neurological and psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia, mania, and delusional disorders

antipsychotic drug

205

means having an affinity for

-tropic

206

administered to temporarily relieve anxiety and to reduce tension

anxiolytic drug

207

means anxiety

anxi/o

208

used to treat mood instability and bipolar disorders

mood stabilizing drugs

209

acts primarily on the CNS, where it produces temporary changes affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior. used on pain, narcolepsy, and attention disorders

psychotropic drug

210

works by increasing activity in certain areas of the brain to increase concentration and wakefulness

stimulant

211

based on the idea that mental disorders have underlying causes stemming from childhood and can only be overcome by gaining insight into one's feelings and patterns of behavior

psychoanalysis

212

focuses on changing behavior by identifying problem behaviors, replacing them with appropriate behaviors, and using rewards or other consequences to make the changes

behavioral therapy

213

focuses on changing cognitions or thoughts that are affecting a person's emotions and actions

cognitive therapy

214

the use of hypnosis to produce a relaxed state of focused attention in which the patient may be more willing to believe and act on suggestions

hypnotherapy