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Flashcards in Med Term 11 Deck (256):
1

the structures outside the eyeball, and include the orbit, eye muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus

adnexa of the eyes, aka adnexa oculi

2

means appendages or accessory structures of an organ

adnexa

3

the bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects the eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves

orbit

4

attached to each eye, arranged in three pair

eye muscles

5

the muscles of both eyes working together in coordinated movements

binocular vision

6

means two

bin-

7

means eye

ocul/o

8

help protect the eyeball from foreign matter, excessive light, and injuries due to other causes

upper and lower eyelids

9

the angle where the upper and lower eyelids meet

canthus

10

means corner of the eye

canth/o

11

where the eyelids meet nearest the nose

inner canthus

12

a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose

epicanthus

13

where the eyelids meet farthest from the nose

outer canthus

14

the framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides the necessary stiffness and shape

tarsus

15

means edge of the eyelid

tars/o

16

prevent foreign matter from reaching the eyes

eyebrows and eyelashes

17

small hairs that make up the eyelashes

cilia

18

the transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid and continues to form a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eyeball

conjunctiva

19

consists of the structures that produce, store, and remove tears

lacrimal apparatus, aka tear apparatus

20

located on the underside of the upper eyelid just above the outer corner of each eye and secrete lacrimal fluid

lacrimal glands

21

secretion of this maintains moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball, distributed by blinking

lacrimal fluid, aka tears

22

consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye

lacrimal canal

23

an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct

lacrimal sac, aka tear sac

24

the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose

lacrimal duct, aka nasolacrimal duct

25

a 1-inch sphere with only about one-sixth of its surface visible

the eyeball, aka globe

26

means pertaining to the eye or sight

optic

27

means sight

opt/o

28

means pertaining to the eye

ocular

29

means eye

ocul/o

30

means outside the eyeball

extraocular

31

means on the outside

extra-

32

means within the eyeball

intraocular

33

means within

intra-

34

maintains the shape of the eye and protects the delicate inner layers of tissue

sclera, aka white of the eye

35

means the white of the eye

scler/o

36

the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye

choroid, aka choroid coat

37

the sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye. receives nerve impulses and transmits them to the brain

retina

38

makes up the front one-third of the eyeball

anterior segment

39

located behind the cornea and in front of the iris

anterior chamber

40

located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place

posterior chamber

41

fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the anterior segment of the eye

aqueous fluid

42

this constantly filters and drains the aqueous fluid

trabecular meshwork and the canal of Schlemm

43

a measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye

intraocular pressure (IOP)

44

lined with the retina and filled with vitreous gel, and makes up the remaining two-thirds of the eyeball

posterior segment

45

fills the posterior segment of the eye

vitreous gel, aka vitreous humor

46

receive images that have passed through the lens of the eye

rods and cones

47

a clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina, has the sharpest central vision

macula

48

a pit in the middle of the macula, best with color vision

fovea centralis

49

a small region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve

optic disk, aka blind spot

50

transmits the nerve impulses from the retina to the brain

optic nerve

51

the pigmented layer of the eye

uveal tract

52

a set of muscles and suspensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina, located within the choroid

ciliary body

53

the colorful muscular layer of the eye that surrounds the pupil, control the amount of light allowed to enter through the pupil

iris

54

the transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil, primary structure focusing light rays entering the eye

cornea

55

the black circular opening in the center of the iris that permits light to enter the eye

pupil

56

the clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses images on the retina

lens

57

the process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances

accommodation

58

the simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other, occurs to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes closer

convergence

59

the normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina

emmetropia

60

means proper measure

emmetr/o

61

means vision condition

-opia

62

the ability of the lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina

refraction, aka refractive power

63

the ability to distinguish object details and shape at a distance

visual acuity

64

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the eyes and vision

ophthalmologist

65

means eye

ophthalm/o

66

holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed

optometrist

67

means one who measures

-metrist

68

drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis

blepharoptosis, aka ptosis

69

means eyelid

blephar/o

70

means drooping or sagging

-ptosis

71

a localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction of a sebaceous gland

chalazion, aka internal style

72

the eversion of the edge of an eyelid

ectropion

73

means out

ec-

74

means turn

trop/o

75

the inversion of the edge of an eyelid

entropion

76

means in

en-

77

a pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland

hordeolum, aka style

78

swelling surrounding the eye or eyes

periorbital edema

79

means eyeball

orbit/o

80

an inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy

conjunctivitis, aka pinkeye

81

means conjunctiva

conjunctiv/o

82

an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection

dacryoadenitis

83

means tear

dacry/o

84

means gland

aden/o

85

bleeding between the conjunctiva and the sclera, creates a red area over the white of the eye

subconjunctival hemorrhage

86

drying of the eye surfaces including the conjunctiva

xerophthalmia, aka dry eye

87

means dry

xer/o

88

an inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye

iritis, aka anterior uveitis

89

means iris

ir/o

90

an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea

corneal abrasion

91

a pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury, leaves a cloudy scar that impairs vision

corneal ulcer

92

an inflammation of the cornea

keratitis

93

means cornea, also means hard

kerat/o

94

a benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision

pterygium

95

an inflammation of the sclera

scleritis

96

an adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea

synechia

97

a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size

anisocoria

98

means unequal

anis/o

99

means pupil

cor/o

100

the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity

cataract

101

an abbreviation meaning pupils are equal, round, responsive to light and accommodation

PERRLA

102

when the retina is pulled away from its attachment to the choroid in the back of the eye

retinal detachment, aka detached retina

103

particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous fluid and cast shadows on the retina

floaters, aka vitreous floaters

104

an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use

nystagmus

105

swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk. caused by increased intracranial pressure

papilledema, aka choked disk

106

occurs when a hole develops in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position

retinal tear

107

a progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night and peripheral vision. detected by the presence of dark pigmented spots in the retina

retinitis pigmentosa

108

occurs as aging causes the vitreous gel to slowly shrink.

vitreous detachment

109

a group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve

glaucoma

110

the most common form of glaucoma, pressure builds up and eventually damages the optic nerve

open-angle glaucoma

111

form of glaucoma where the opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork. causes pain, nausea, redness, and blurred vision. blindness in 2 days

closed-angle glaucoma

112

a gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in the loss of central vision, but not in total blindness

macular degeneration

113

means spot

macul/o

114

the perception of two images of a single object

diplopia

115

means double

dipl/o

116

blindness in one-half of the visual field

hemianopia

117

means half

hemi-

118

the inability to distinguish colors

monochromatism, aka color blindness

119

means one

mon/o

120

means color

chromat/o

121

a condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night

nyctalopia, aka night blindness

122

means night

nyctal/o

123

the condition of common changes in the eyes that occur with aging

presbyopia

124

means old age

presby/o

125

a disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly because the eye muscles are unable to focus together

strabismus

126

strabismus characterized by an inward deviation of one or both eyes

esotropia, aka cross-eyes

127

means inward

eso-

128

strabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other

exotropia, aka walleye

129

means outward

exo-

130

a focusing problem that occurs when the lens and cornea do not bend light so that it focuses properly on the retina

refractive disorder

131

any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina. includes astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia

ametropia

132

a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea

astigmatism

133

a defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina

hyperopia, aka farsightedness

134

a defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina

myopia

135

the inability to see

blindness

136

a dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye

amblyopia

137

means dim or dull

ambly/o

138

an abnormal area of absent or depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision

scotoma, aka blind spot

139

used to measure visual acuity

snellen chart (SC)

140

an examination procedure to determine an eye's refractive error so that the best corrective lenses can be prescribed

refraction

141

the unit of measurement of a lens' refractive power

diopter

142

the visual examination of the fundus of the eye with an ophthalmoscope

ophthalmoscopy

143

medicated drops placed into the eyes that produce temporary paralysis

mydriatic drops

144

a diagnostic procedure in which a narrow beam of light is focused onto parts of the eye to permit the ophthalmologist to examine the structures at the front of the eye including the cornea, iris, and lens

slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy

145

the measurement of intraocular pressure

tonometry

146

the application of fluorescent dye to the surface of the eye. causes a corneal abrasion to appear bright green

fluorescein staining

147

a radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium

fluorescein angiography

148

performed to determine losses in peripheral vision

visual field testing

149

a surgical incision into the orbit

orbitotomy

150

means bony socket

orbit/o

151

the partial or complete suturing together of the upper and lower eyelids

tarsorrhaphy

152

means eyelid

tars/o

153

the surgical repair of the conjunctiva

conjunctivoplasty

154

the surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea with clear corneal tissue from a donor

corneal transplant, aka keratoplasty

155

the surgical removal of a portion of the tissue of the iris

iridectomy

156

means iris

irid/o

157

may be fitted to wear over a malformed eye or to replace an eyeball that is either congenitally missing or has been surgically removed

ocular prosthesis

158

a surgical procedure to treat myopia

radial keratotomy

159

the removal of the vitreous fluid and its replacement with a clear solution

vitrectomy

160

means vitreous fluid

vitr/o

161

the general term used to describe the surgical removal of a cataract-clouded lens

lensectomy

162

means lens

lens/o

163

the use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter and remove the lens clouded by a cataract

phacoemulsification

164

a surgically implanted replacement for a natural lens that has been removed

intraocular lens

165

an eye in which the natural lens has been replaced with an intraocular lens

pseudophakia

166

means false

pseudo/o

167

means lens

phak/o

168

uses a focused beam of light to create a hole in the iris of the eye

laser iridotomy

169

used to treat open-angle glaucoma by creating openings in the trabecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly

laser trabeculoplasty

170

acronym for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

LASIK

171

means carving

-mileusis

172

the use of lasers to treat some forms of wet macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels

photocoagulation

173

used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment

retinopexy

174

means retina

retin/o

175

means pertaining to the sense of hearing

auditory

176

means hearing or sense of hearing

audit/o

177

means relating to sound or hearing

acoustic

178

means hearing or sound

acous/o

179

the external portion of the ear

pinna, aka auricle

180

transmits sound waves from the pinna to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear

external auditory canal

181

secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal. a protective fluid

cerumen

182

located between the outer ear and the inner ear and transmits sound across this space

middle ear

183

located between the outer and middle ear

tympanic membrane

184

means tympanic membrane

myring/o, and tympan/o

185

surrounds the middle ear and are hollow air spaces located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone

mastoid bone cells

186

three small bones found in the middle ear

auditory ossicles

187

auditory ossicle also known as the hammer

malleus

188

auditory ossicle also known as the anvil

incus

189

auditory ossicle also known as the stirrup

stapes

190

narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat. equalized pressure in the middle ear

eustachian tubes, aka auditory tubes

191

contains the sensory receptors for hearing and balance

inner ear, aka labyrinth

192

located under the base of the stapes, and is the membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear

oval window

193

the snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that forms the inner ear

cochlea

194

a fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it

cochlear duct

195

receives the vibrations from the cochlear duct and relays them to the auditory nerve fibers

organ of Corti

196

contain the liquid endolymph and sensitive hair-like cells. help maintain equilibrium

semicircular canals

197

transmit information from the semicircular canals to the brain

acoustic nerves

198

the process by which sound waves enter the ear through the pinna

air conduction

199

occurs as the eardrum vibrates and moves the auditory ossicles

bone conduction

200

occurs when sound vibrations reach the inner ear

sensorineural conduction

201

specializes in the measurement of hearing function and in the rehabilitation of persons with hearing impairments

audiologist

202

means hearing

audi/o

203

an accumulation of earwax that forms a solid mass by adhering to the walls of the external auditory canal

impacted cerumen

204

pain in the ear

otalgia, aka earache

205

means ear

ot/o

206

means any inflammation of the ear

otitis

207

a fungal infection of the external auditory canal

otomycosis

208

the flow of pus from the ear

otopyorrhea

209

bleeding from the ear

otorrhagia

210

pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving, scuba diving, or when the eustachian tube is blocked

barotrauma

211

means pressure

bar/o

212

means injury

-trauma

213

inflammation of the eustachian tube

eustachitis, aka salpingitis

214

means eustachian tube

eustach/o

215

an inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone cells

mastoiditis

216

means mastoid process

mastoid/o

217

a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum

infectious myringitis

218

the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in a conductive hearing loss

otosclerosis

219

distention of the eustachian tube

patulous eustachian tube

220

an inflammation of the middle ear

otitis media

221

usually associated with an upper respiratory infection and is most commonly seen in young children

acute otitis media

222

a fluid buildup in the middle ear that can follow acute otitis media or can be caused by obstruction of the eustachian tube

serous otitis media

223

a buildup of pus within the middle ear due to infection

acute purulent otitis media

224

an inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo and deafness

labyrinthitis

225

means labyrinth

labyrinth/o

226

a sense of whirling, dizziness, and the loss of balance, that is often combined with nausea and vomiting

vertigo

227

a rare chronic disease in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss, and tinnitus

Meniere's syndrome

228

a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or boh ears

tinnitus

229

the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear

deafness

230

a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages

presbycusis

231

means old age

presby/o

232

means hearing

-cusis

233

occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid-filled inner ear

conductive hearing loss

234

develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged

sensorineural hearing loss, aka nerve defness

235

a type of nerve deafness caused by repeated exposure to extremely loud noises such as a gunshot, or to moderately loud noise that continues for long periods of time

noise-induced hearing loss

236

the measurement of the ability to hear and understand speech sounds based on their pitch and loudness

audiological evaluation

237

the use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity

audiometry

238

means to measure

-metry

239

a measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch is

hertz

240

commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of sound

decibel

241

testing one ear

monaural testing

242

means hearing

aur/o

243

testing both ears

binaural testing

244

the use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear

tympanometry

245

the surgical repair of the pinna of the ear

otoplasty

246

the surgical removal of mastoid cells

mastoidectomy

247

the surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes

myringotomy

248

tiny ventilating tubes placed through the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections

tympanostomy tubes, aka pediatric ear tubes

249

the surgical correction of a damaged middle ear, either to cure chronic inflammation or to restore function

tympanoplasty

250

the surgical removal of the top portion of the stapes bone and the insertion of a small prosthetic device known as a piton that conducts sound vibrations to the inner ear

stapedectomy

251

a surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in the labyrinth to restore hearing

fenestration

252

means window

fenestra/o

253

an external electronic device that uses a microphone to detect sounds

hearing aid

254

the surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth

labyrinthectomy

255

a surgical incision between two of the fluid chambers of the labyrinth

labyrinthotomy

256

an implanted electronic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the environment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech

cochlear implant