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Flashcards in Med Term 12 Deck (197):
1

made up of the skin and its related structures, performs important functions in maintaining the health of the body

integumentary system

2

secrete sebum that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin, located in the dermis layer and are closely related with hair follicles

sebaceous glands

3

help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat. tiny, coiled glands found on almost all body surfaces

sweat glands

4

helps control the loss of body heat, rod-like structures composed of tightly fused, dead protein cells filled with hard keratin

hair

5

protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger, made of keratin

unguis, aka fingernail or toenail

6

covers the external surfaces of the body, largest body organ

skin

7

means relating to the skin

cutaneous

8

means skin

cutane/o

9

the outermost layer of the skin and is made up of several specialized epithelial tissues

epidermis

10

form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body

epithelial tissues

11

forms the upper layer of the epidermis

squamous epithelial tissue

12

a fibrous, water-repellent protein

keratin

13

cells in the basal cell layer that produce and contain a dark brown to black pigment called melanin

melanocytes

14

the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis

dermis

15

in the dermis and are the sensory receptors to stimuli such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure

sensory nerve endings

16

a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin and in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. means glue

collagen

17

found in the connective tissue of the dermis, and respond to injury, infection, or allergy by producing and releasing substances, including heparin and histamine

mast cells

18

an anticoagulant, and is released in response to an injury

heparin

19

causes the signs of an allergic response, including itching and increased mucus secretion. released in response to allergens

histamine

20

located just below the skin, connects the skin to the surface muscles

subcutaneous layer

21

fat tissue, makes up the subcutaneous layer

adipose tissue

22

cells predominant in the subcutaneous layer where they manufacture and store large quantities of fat

lipocytes, aka fat cells

23

secreted by the sebaceous glands, released through ducts opening into the hair follicles, then lubricates the skin

sebum

24

modified sebaceous glands, produce milk and are sometimes classified with the integumentary system

mammary glands

25

the openings on the surface of the skin for the ducts of the sweat glands

pores

26

secreted by sweat glands and is made up of 99% water plus some salt and metabolic waste

perspiration, aka sweat

27

one way in which the body excretes excess water, cools the body

perspiring, aka sweating

28

the production and excretion of sweat

hidrosis

29

the sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers.

hair follicles

30

tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect

arrector pili

31

a pale half-moon-shaped region at every nail root that is generally most easily seen in the thumbnail

lunula

32

a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root, protecting the new keratin cells as they form

cuticle

33

fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin

nail root

34

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the skin

dermatologist

35

means skin

dermat/o

36

a physician who specializes in the surgical restoration and reconstruction of body structures

cosmetic surgeon

37

a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum

acne vulgaris, aka acne

38

a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle

comedo

39

a closed sac associated with a sebaceous gland that is found just under the skin

sebaceous cyst

40

overactivity of the sebaceous glands that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum

seborrhea

41

an inflammation that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of the skin or scalp

seborrheic dermatitis

42

a benign skin growth that has a waxy or pasted-on look. occur most commonly in the elderly

seborrheic keratosis

43

the abnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to heat

anhidrosis

44

means sweat

hidr/o

45

profuse sweating

diaphoresis

46

means movement

phor/o

47

a condition of sweating in one area or over the whole body

hyperhidrosis

48

an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells

miliaria, aka heat rash and prickly heat

49

the occurrence of excessive hyperhidrosis during sleep

sleep hyperhidrosis, aka night sweats

50

an inflammation of the hair follicles

folliculitis

51

means hair follicle

follicul/o

52

the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern

hirsutism

53

means hairy

hirsut/o

54

the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp

alopecia, aka baldness

55

means baldness

alopec/o

56

an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles, causing well-defined bald areas on the scalp or elsewhere on the body

alopecia areata

57

an uncommon condition characterized by the loss of all the hair on the scalp

alopecia capitis totalis

58

the total loss of hair on all parts of the body

alopecia universalis

59

a condition in which the hair thins in the front and on the sides of the scalp and sometimes on the crown

female pattern baldness

60

a common hair-loss pattern in men, with the hairline receding from the front to the back until only a horseshoe-shaped area of the hair remains in the back and at the temples

male pattern baldness

61

abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips

clubbing

62

a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon

koilonychia, aka spoon nail

63

means hollow or concave

koil/o

64

means finger or toenail

onych/o

65

an inflammation of the matrix of the nail that usually results in the loss of the nail

onychia, aka onychitis

66

commonly known as an ingrown toenail

onychocryptosis

67

means hidden

crypt/o

68

a fungal infection of the nail

onychomycosis

69

means nail biting or nail eating

onychophagia

70

an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail

paronychia

71

means near

par-

72

a genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises of the eyes

ablinism

73

means white

albin/o

74

a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face

chloasma, aka melasma or mask of pregnancy

75

any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body

melanosis

76

a skin condition resulting from the destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes

vitiligo

77

an injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin and is characterized by discoloration and pain

contusion

78

means bruise

contus/o

79

a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin

ecchymosis, aka bruise

80

means pouring out of juice

ecchym/o

81

the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin

purpura

82

means purple

purpur/o

83

very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter

petechiae

84

a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues, usually caused by injury

hematoma

85

a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury

lesion

86

a collection of dried serum and cellular debris

crust, aka scab

87

a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter... freckles, flat moles

macule, aka macula

88

a solid, raised skin lesion that is larger than .5 cm in diameter and deeper than a papule.

nodule

89

a small, raised red lesion that is less than .5 cm in diameter and does not contain pus

papule

90

a scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules

plaque

91

flakes or dry patches made up of excess dead epidermal cells

scales

92

small, hard skin lesions caused by the human papilloma virus

verrucae, aka warts

93

a small bump that itches, possibly from an allergic reaction

wheal, aka welt

94

a closed pocket containing pus that is caused by a bacterial infection

abscess

95

means producing or containing pus

purulent

96

an abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material

cyst

97

a small, circumscribed lesion containing pus

pustule

98

a small blister, less than .5 cm in diameter, containing watery fluid

vesicle

99

a large blister that is usually more than .5 cm in diameter

bulla

100

an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away

abrasion

101

an ulcerated area in which prolonged pressure has caused tissue death

pressure sore, aka decubitus ulcer or bedsore

102

a groove or crack-like break in the skin

fissure

103

a torn or jagged wound, or accidental cut wound

laceration

104

a deep hole made by a sharp object such as a nail, greater risk of infection

puncture wound

105

an open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges

ulcer

106

a large, reddish-purple discoloration of the face or neck

port-wine stain

107

a soft, raised, dark-reddish-purple birthmark

strawberry hemangioma

108

means an inflammation of the skin

dermatitis

109

a localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant, for example, as seen with diaper rash

contact dermatitis

110

a form of persistent or recurring dermatitis that is usually characterized by redness, itching, and dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding

eczema

111

means itching, and is associated with most forms of dermatitis

pruritus

112

redness of the skin due to capillary dilation

erythema

113

means flushed

erythem/o

114

means itching

prurit/o

115

abnormal redness of the entire skin surface

erythroderma

116

a form of erythema in which skin cells are damaged by exposure to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight

sunburn

117

a condition in which there is widespread scaling of the skin, often with pruritus, erythroderma, and hair loss

exfoliative dermatitis

118

a general term used to denote skin lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation

dermatosis

119

a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin

ichthyosis

120

means dry or scaly

ichthy/o

121

a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips and legs

lipedema, aka painful fat syndrome

122

means fat

lip/o

123

an autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk

lupus erythemotosus

124

a common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks

psoriasis

125

characterized by tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels

rosacea

126

usually occurs in older men, characterized by hyperplasia of the tissues of the nose and is associated with advanced rosacea

rhinophyma, aka bulbous nose

127

an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened, causing the skin to become hard and swollen

scleroderma

128

itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction

urticaria

129

means rash

urtic/o

130

means connected with

-aria

131

excessively dry skin

xeroderma

132

a cluster of connected furuncles (boils)

carbuncle

133

an acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues that is characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, and red streaks

cellulitis

134

large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands

furuncles, aka boils

135

tissue necrosis most commonly caused by a loss of circulation to the affected tissues

gangrene

136

a highly contagious bacterial skin infection that commonly occurs in children. characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture

impetigo

137

a severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria

necrotizing fasciitis

138

any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo

pyoderma

139

a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails

tinea, aka ringworm

140

tinea found on the scalps of children

tinea capitis

141

tinea found on the skin of the body

tinea corporis

142

tinea found in the genital area

tinea cruris, aka jock itch

143

tinea found between the toes and on the feet

tinea pedis, aka athlete's foot

144

tinea that causes painless, discolored areas on the skins

tinea versicolor

145

the dwelling of microscopic parasites on external surface tissue

infestation

146

an infestation with lice

pediculosis

147

means lice

pedicul/o

148

head lice

pediculosis capitis

149

body lice

pediculosis corporis

150

lice in the pubic hair and pubic region

pediculosis pubis

151

a skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite, which causes small, itchy bumps and blisters due to tiny mites that burrow into the top layer of human skin and lay eggs

scabies

152

a thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing

callus

153

a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound

cicatrix

154

the tissue that normally forms during the healing of a wound

granulation tissue

155

a general term used to describe small, knot-like swellings of granulation tissue in the epidermis

granuloma

156

means granular

granul/o

157

an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the incision

keloid

158

means growth or tumor

kel/o

159

any skin growth, suc as a wart or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin

keratosis

160

means hard or horny

kerat/o

161

a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer

lipoma

162

small, dark, skin growths that develop from melanocytes in the skin

nevi

163

atypical moles that can develop into skin cancer

dysplastic nevi

164

a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as the bladder

papilloma

165

means resembling a nipple

papill/o

166

a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane

polyp

167

small, flesh-colored or light-brown polyps that hang from the body by fine stalks

skin tags

168

a harmful, malignant growth on the skin, which can have many causes, including repeated severe sunburns or long-term exposure to the sun

skin cancer

169

a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun-damaged skin. red, scaly, feels like sandpaper

actinic keratosis

170

a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis

basal cell carcinoma

171

originates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium, can quickly spread to other body systems

squamous cell carcinoma

172

a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes. most serious type of skin cancer.

malignant melanoma

173

an injury to body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation

burn

174

the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis

biopsy

175

a technique in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope

exfoliative cytology

176

measured in strength of sun protection factor and blocks out the harmful ultraviolet B rays from the skin

sunscreen

177

the destruction of tissue by burning

cauterization

178

the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scaring, fine wrinkling, and keratoses

chemabrasion, aka chemical peel

179

the destruction or elimination of abnormal tissue cells, such as warts or tumors, through the application of extreme cold by using liquid nitrogen

cryosurgery

180

means cold

cry/o

181

means operative procedure

-surgery

182

the removal of material from the surface by scraping

curettage

183

the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing

debridement

184

a form of abrasion involving the use of a revolving wire brush or sandpaper

dermabrasion

185

involves incision of a lesion, such as an abscess, and draining the contents

incision and drainage

186

a technique used to treat skin cancer where individual layers of cancerous tissue are removed and examined under a microscope one at a time until all cancerous tissue has been removed

Mohs surgery

187

the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing excess fat, skin, and muscle

blepharoplasty, aka lid lift

188

means eyelid

blephar/o

189

a formulation of botulinum toxin type A, injected to reduce moderate to severe frown lines

botox

190

a form of soft-tissue augmentation used to soften facial lines or scars or to make lips appear fuller

collagen replacement therapy

191

the replacement of damaged skin with healthy tissue taken from a donor site on the patient's body

dermatoplasty, aka skin graft

192

the use of electric current to destroy hair follicles in order to produce the relatively permanent removal of undesired hair

electrolysis

193

the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin

lipectomy

194

the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction

liposuction, aka suction-assisted lipectomy

195

the surgical removal of excess skin and fat around the face to eliminate wrinkles

rhytidectomy, aka facelift

196

means wrinkle

rhytid/o

197

used in the treatment of spider veins

sclerotherapy