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Flashcards in Med Term 14 Deck (265):
1

the organs of reproduction and their associated structures

genitalia

2

the external surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx

perineum

3

the saclike structure that surrounds, protects, and supports the testicles

scrotum

4

the two small, egg-shaped glands that produce the sperm

testicles, aka testes

5

where sperm are formed, each testicle

seminiferous tubules

6

a coiled tube at the upper part of each testicle, runs down the length of the testicle then turns upward toward the body

epididymis

7

extends upward from the epididymis and is attached to each testicle

spermatic cord

8

the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina, composed of 3 columns of erectile tissue

penis

9

means penis

pen/i and phall/i

10

the sensitive region located at the tip of the penis

glans penis, aka head of the penis

11

a retractable double layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers and protects the glans penis

foreskin, aka prepuce

12

the long, narrow continuations of each epididymis, lead upward eventually to join the urethra

vas deferens, aka ductus deferens

13

glands that secrete a thick, yellow substance to nourish the sperm cells, located at the base of the urinary bladder

seminal vesicles

14

begins at the vas deferens and passes through the prostate gland, and empties into the urethra

ejaculatory duct

15

the whitish fluid containing sperm that is ejaculated through the urethra at the peak of male sexual excitement

semen

16

lies under the bladder and surrounds the end of the urethra in the region where the vas deferens enters the urethra. secretes fluid to help aid motility of sperm

prostate gland

17

located just below the prostate gland, secrete pre-ejaculate

bulbourethral glands, aka Cowper's glands

18

passes through the penis to the outside of the body

urethra

19

the process of sperm formation

spermatogenesis

20

means sperm

spermat/o

21

the male gametes formed in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles

sperm

22

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and genitourinary system of males

urologist

23

means urine

ur/o

24

an inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision

balanitis

25

means glans penis

balan/o

26

a narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so it cannot be retracted (pulled back) to expose the glans penis

phimosis

27

the inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection

impotence, aka erectile dysfunction

28

a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection

Peyronie's disease, aka penile curvature

29

a condition in which the male reaches climax too soon, usually before, or shortly after, penetration of the female

premature ejaculation

30

marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone

andropause, aka male menopause

31

means male or masculine

andr/o

32

means stopping

-pause

33

the absence of one or both testicles

anorchism

34

means testicle

orch/o

35

a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into their normal position in the scrotum

cryptorchidism, aka undescended testicle

36

inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder

epididymitis

37

means epididymis

epididym/o

38

a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles

hydrocele

39

a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is not accompanied by sexual excitement

priapism

40

a cyst that develops in the epididymis and is filled with a milky fluid containing sperm

spermatocele

41

the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 34 years, highly treatable when diagnosed early

testicular cancer

42

pain in one or both testicles

testicular pain, aka orchalgia

43

a sharp pain in the scrotum caused by twisting of the vas deferens and blood vessels leading into the testicle

testicular torsion

44

inflammation of one or both testicles

testitis, aka orchitis

45

means testicle

test/o, orchid/o, orchi/o

46

a knot of varicose veins in one side of the scrotum

varicocele

47

means varicose veins

varic/o

48

about 20-120 million or more sperm per milliliter of semen

normal sperm count

49

the absence of sperm in the semen

azoospermia

50

means life

zoo

51

a sperm count below 20 million/ml

low sperm count, aka oligospermia

52

means few

olig/o

53

the presence of blood in the seminal fluid

hemospermia

54

the testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine the volume plus the number, shape, size, and motility of the sperm

sperm count, aka sperm analysis

55

a self-help step in early detection of testicular cancer by detecting lumps, swelling, or changes in the skin of the scrotum

testicular self-examination

56

the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

circumcision

57

the surgical removal of one or both testicles

orchidectomy, aka orchiectomy

58

endoscopic surgery to move an undescended testicle into its normal position in the scrotum

orchiopexy

59

the removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele

varicocelectomy

60

any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction

sterilization

61

the surgical removal or destruction of both testicles

castration, aka bilateral orchidectomy

62

the male sterilization procedure in which a small portion of the vas deferens is surgically removed, preventing the sperm from entering the ejaculate, but does not change the volume of semen

vasectomy

63

a procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male

vasovasostomy, aka vasectomy reversal

64

means blood vessel

vas/o

65

infection that affect both males and females, commonly spread through sexual intercourse or other genital contact

sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aka venereal diseases

66

caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most commonly reported STD in the US, females - damage to reproductive organs, males - urethritis

chlamydia

67

a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina

bacterial vaginosis

68

means vagina

vagin/o

69

caused by the herpes simplex virus 2, itching, burning, lesions. no cure

genital herpes

70

caused by human papilloma virus, highly contagious. can cause cervical cancer, warts internally and externally on genitalia

genital warts

71

vaccine available to prevent the spread of genital warts

human papilloma virus vaccine

72

a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Women - condition affects cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes. Men - painful urination

gonorrhea

73

transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with an infected partner

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

74

caused by Treponema pallidum, highly contagious, similar to many other STDs, transmitted by touching a chancre.

syphilis

75

blood test for syphilis

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)

76

another blood test for syphilis

Rapid plasma reagin (RPR)

77

an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, causes thin, frothy, yellow-green, foul smelling vaginal discharge

trichomoniasis, aka trich

78

a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis

mons pubis

79

collectively the external female genitalia

vulva, aka pudendum

80

the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalia and the urethral meatus

labia majora and labia minora

81

an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice

clitoris

82

produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina, located on either side of the vaginal orifice

Bartholin's glands

83

the exterior opening of the vagina

vaginal orifice

84

a mucous membrane that partially covers the vaginal orifice before a woman has had intercourse

hymen

85

mean breast

mamm/o, mast/o

86

the milk-producing glands that develop during puberty

mammary glands

87

carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple

lactiferous ducts, aka milk ducts

88

where breast milk flows through

nipple

89

surrounds the nipple and is a dark-pigmented area

areola

90

a pair of small, almond shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus

ovaries

91

a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg)

follicle

92

the female gametes, present at birth

ova

93

extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near, but not attached to, and ovary

fallopian tubes, aka uterine tubes

94

the funnel shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary

infundibulum

95

the fringed, fingerlike extensions of the infundibulum, catches the mature ovum when it leaves the ovary

fimbriae

96

a pear shaped organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels

uterus, aka womb

97

normal position of the body of the uterus, where it is bent forward

anteflexion

98

means forward

ante-

99

means bend

flex/o

100

the bulging, rounded part of the uterus above the entrance of the fallopian tubes

fundus

101

the middle portion of the uterus

corpus, aka body of the uterus

102

the lower, narrow portion of the uterus that extends into the vagina

cervix

103

the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus

perimetrium

104

means uterus

metri/o, hyster/o

105

the muscular middle layer of the uterus

myometrium

106

the inner layer of the uterus, consisting of specialized epithelial mucosa that is rich in blood vessels

endometrium

107

the muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body

vagina

108

means vagina

colp/o and vagin/o

109

the normal periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg from uterus

menstruation, aka menses

110

the beginning of the menstrual function

menarche

111

means menstruation

men/o

112

means beginning

-arche

113

the normal termination of the menstrual function

menopause

114

the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all

perimenopause

115

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system

gynecologist

116

means female

gynec/o

117

a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter

obstetrician

118

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn

neonatologist

119

a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children

pediatrician

120

the absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected

anovulation

121

means the release of a mature egg

ovulation

122

inflammation of an ovary

oophoritis

123

means ovary

oophor/o, ovari/o

124

cancer that originates within the cells of the ovaries

ovarian cancer

125

the rupture of an ovary

ovariorrhexis

126

any inflammation of the female reproductive organs that is not associated with surgery or pregnancy. occurs often from STDs

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

127

a condition caused by a hormonal imbalance in which the ovaries are enlarged by the presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles

polycystic ovary syndrome, aka Stein-Leventhal syndrome

128

an accumulation of pus in the fallopian tube

pyosalpinx

129

means fallopian tube

-salpinx, salping/o

130

an inflammation of a fallopian tube

salpingitis

131

a condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity

endometriosis

132

an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus

metrorrhea

133

involves cancerous growth on the lining of the uterus. can show as abnormal bleeding from the uterus after menopause

uterine cancer

134

a benign tumor composed of muscle and fibrous tissue that occurs in the wall of the uterus

uterine fibroid, aka myoma

135

the condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina

uterine prolapse, aka pelvic floor hernia

136

the second-most common cancer in women and usually affects women between the ages of 45 and 65, detected by Pap tests

cervical cancer

137

the growth of abnormal cells in the cervix, which can be detected by a pap smear, can become malignant

cervical dysplasia, aka precancerous lesions

138

an inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection

cervicitis

139

means cervix

cervic/o

140

an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix

endocervicitis

141

means tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall

colporrhexis

142

a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina

leukorrhea

143

a vaginal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans. cottage cheese like discharge

vaginal candidiasis, aka vaginal thrush or yeast infection

144

an inflammation of the lining of the vagina

vaginitis, aka colpitis

145

a condition of severe itching of the external female genitalia

pruritus vulvae

146

a syndrome of unknown cause that is characterized by chronic burning, pain during sexual intercourse, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva

vulvodynia

147

means vulva

vulv/o

148

an inflammation of the vulva

vulvitis

149

cancer of the breast

breast cancer

150

a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast. benign and usually painless

fibroadenoma

151

the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts

fibrocystic breast disease

152

the production of breast milk in a woman who is not breastfeeding

galactorrhea

153

means milk

galact/o

154

pain in the breast

mastalgia, aka mastodynia

155

a breast infection that is most frequently caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue during breastfeeding

mastitis

156

an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months

amenorrhea

157

pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period

dysmenorrhea

158

an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days

hypermenorrhea, aka menorrhagia

159

an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period

hypomenorrhea

160

excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals

menometrorrhagia, aka intermenstrual bleeding

161

the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a woman with previously normal periods

oligomenorrhea

162

emans scanty

olig/o

163

the occurrence of menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal

polymenorrhea

164

a condition in which the ovaries cease functioning before age 40 years due to disease, a hormonal disorder, or surgical removal. causes infertility and menopausal symptoms

premature menopause

165

a group of symptoms experienced by some women within the 2-week period before menstruation.

premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

166

a condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems that are closely linked to the menstrual cycle

premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

167

the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina

colposcopy

168

a small amount of the tissue from the lining of the uterus is removed for microscopic examination. to determine the cause of abnormal bleeding

endometrial biopsy

169

performed to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding, using an ultrasound transducer in the vagina creating images of the uterus and ovaries

endovaginal ultrasound

170

a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes, instillation of radiopaque contrast material into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes

hysterosalpingography

171

the direct visual examination fo the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes

hysteroscopy

172

an exfoliative biopsy for the detection of conditions that can be early indicators of cervical cancer

Papanicolaou test, aka Pap smear

173

a measure taken, or device used to lessen the likelihood of conception and pregnancy

contraceptive

174

a molded plastic contraceptive inserted through the cervix into the uterus

intrauterine device

175

the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause

hormone replacement therapy

176

the surgical removal of one or both ovaries

ovariectomy, aka oophorectomy

177

the surgical removal of one or both fallopian tubes

salpingectomy

178

the surgical removal of a fallopian tube and ovary

salpingo-oophorectomy

179

a surgical sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent perm from reaching a mature ovum

tubal ligation

180

the surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall

colpopexy, aka vaginofixation

181

the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix. performed to remove abnormal tissue

conization, aka cone biopsy

182

the surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina

colporrhaphy

183

a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped away

dilation and curettage, aka D & C

184

the surgical removal of uterine fibroids

myomectomy

185

means muscle tumor

myom/o

186

the surgical removal of the uterus

hysterectomy

187

when the uterus and cervix are removed

total hysterectomy

188

most commonly performed to treat uterine cancer, removal of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, plus nearby lymph nodes

radical hysterectomy

189

a general term for a cosmetic operation on the breasts

mammoplasty, aka mammaplasty

190

mammoplasty performed to increase breast size

breast augmentation

191

mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts

breast reduction

192

mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position

mastopexy

193

the release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of the ovary

ovulation

194

secretes the hormone progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. maintains the growth of the uterine lining in preparation for the fertilized egg

corpus luteum

195

when the male ejaculates approximately 100 million sperm into the female's vagina

coitus, aka copulation or sexual intercourse

196

occurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilizes the descending ovum

conception

197

the new single cell formed from the union of conception

zygote

198

developing child from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy

embryo

199

from the 9th week of pregnancy to the time of birth

fetus

200

means unborn child

fet/o

201

result from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells, developing into two separate embryos

fraternal twins

202

formed by the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm that divides to form two embryos.

identical twins

203

term used to describe a birth involving more than two infants

multiples

204

the thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo

chorion

205

a temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and wast products between the mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and feral blood to mix

placenta

206

the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in the uterus

amniotic sac, aka amnion

207

surrounds the developing embryo, which is a fluid filled space between the embryo and the amniotic sac

amniotic cavity

208

the liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements

amnionic fluid, aka amniotic fluid

209

the tube that carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients from the placenta to the developing child, also transports waste from the child to the mothers excretory system

umbilical cord

210

formed after birth where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus

navel, aka belly button

211

lasts approximately 280 days, and is the period of development of the child in the mother's uterus

gestation

212

means the condition of having a developing child in the uterus

pregnancy, aka gestation

213

divides pregnancy into 3 equal time segments

trimesters

214

calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period

due date, aka estimated date of confinement

215

the first movement of the fetus in the uterus that can be felt by the mother, usually 16 to 20 weeks in

quickening

216

intermittent painless uterine contractions that occur with increasing frequency as the pregnancy progresses. not true labor pains

Braxton Hicks contractions

217

when the fetus is considered capable of living outside of the uterus

viable

218

refers to the final stage of pregnancy just before the onset of labor

antepartum

219

a woman who has never been pregnant

nulligravida

220

means none

nulli-

221

means pregnant

-gravida

222

a woman who has never borne a viable child

nullipara

223

means to bring forth

-para

224

a woman during her first pregnancy

primigravida

225

means first

primi-

226

a woman who has borne one viable child

primipara

227

means a woman who has given birth two or more times

multiparous

228

occurs in three stages, dilation, delivery of the baby, and expulsion of the afterbirth

labor and delivery, aka childbirth or parturition

229

the use of an electronic device to record the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions during labor

fetal monitoring

230

means after the childbirth

postpartum

231

the time from the delivery of the placenta through approximately the fist six weeks after the delivery

puerperium

232

the postpartum vaginal discharge that typically continues for 4-6 weeks after childbirth, consists of blood, mucus, and placental tissue

lochia

233

means childbirth

loch/o

234

the return of the uterus to its normal size and former condition after delivery

uterine involution

235

a specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest

colostrum

236

the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant

lactation

237

a mood disorder characterized by feeling of sadness and the loss of pleasure in normal activities that can occur shortly after giving birth

postpartum depression

238

newborn is known as this during the first 4 weeks after birth

neonate

239

a greasy substance that protects the fetus in utero and can still be present at birth

vernix

240

the greenish material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stools of a newborn

meconium

241

a scale of 1-10 to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth

Apgar score

242

the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable

abortion

243

a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus

ectopic pregnancy

244

a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria

preeclampsia, aka pregnancy-induced hypertension, or toxemia

245

characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma, more serious than preeclampsia, usually resolved after childbirth

eclampsia

246

an abnormal disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus

abruptio placentae

247

presentation in which the buttocks or feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal first instead of the head

breech presentation

248

the abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus

placenta previa

249

a fetus born before the 37th week of gestation

premature infant, or preemie

250

the birth of a fetus that died before, or during, the delivery

stillbirth

251

performed to detect an unusually high level of the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone in either a blood or urine specimen, which is usually an indication of pregnancy

pregnancy test

252

ultrasound of a fetus

fetus ultrasound

253

performed between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy and involves and ultrasound and finger-stick blood test, to detect risk for Down's syndrome

first trimester screening, aka combined screening

254

the examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi, which are minute, vascular projection on the chorion, done between 8 and 10 weeks

chorionic villus sampling

255

a surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid, done after 14 weeks to evaluate fetal health

amniocentesis

256

a radiographic study to measure the dimensions of the pelvis to evaluate its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal

pelvimetry

257

means amnion

amnio

258

means pelvis

pelvi/o

259

the delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterine walls

cesarean section, aka C-section

260

Vaginal Birth After a Cesarean

VBAC

261

a surgical incision made through the perineum to enlarge the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal

episiotomy

262

means vulva

episi/o

263

the surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy

episiorrhaphy

264

the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to a live birth

infertility

265

diagnoses and treats problems associated with conception and maintaining pregnancy

infertility specialist, aka fertility specialist