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Flashcards in Med Term 3 Deck (265):
1

system that consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa.

skeletal system

2

the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

periosteum

3

means bone

oste

4

the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones

compact bone

5

the lighter, and not as strong or compact bone, found in the ends and inner portions of long bones, housing red bone marrow

spongy bone

6

cavity located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone.

medullary cavity

7

pertaining to the inner section

medullary

8

the tissue that lines the medullary cavity

endosteum

9

hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and throbocytes

red bone marrow

10

means pertaining to the formation of blood cells

hemopoietic

11

pertaining to formation

-poietic

12

functions as a fat storage area, composed chiefly of fat cells and located in the medullary cavity

yellow bone marrow

13

the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones.

cartilage

14

covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints

articular cartilage

15

the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and temporomandibular joint of the jaw

meniscus

16

the shaft of a long bone

diaphysis

17

the wide end of the long bone, covered with articular cartilage

epiphysis

18

the end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body

proximal epiphysis

19

end of the bone located farthest away from the midline

distal epiphysis

20

an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass

foramen (foramina, plu.)

21

a normal projection of the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons

process

22

the bony projection located on temporal bones just behind the ears

mastoid process

23

the place of union between two or more bones

joints, or articulations

24

hold the bones tightly together, consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue

fibrous joints, aka sutures

25

flexible soft spots normally present on the skull of a newborn

fontanelles, aka soft spots

26

joints that allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage

cartilaginous joints

27

the cartilaginous joint that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth

pubic symphysis

28

a joint created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions, consisting of several components

synovial joint

29

to come together

articulate

30

joints, such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions

ball and socket joints

31

joints such as the knees and elbows that are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one direction or plane

hinge joints

32

the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint

synovial capsule

33

lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid

synovial membrane

34

flows within the synovial cavity and acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible

synovial fluid

35

bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another, or to cartilage

ligaments

36

a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction, such as the shoulder, elbo, knee, where a tendon passes over a bone

bursa (plu. bursae)

37

protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems

axial skeleton

38

pertaining to an axis

axial

39

makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction

appendicular skeleton

40

referring to an appendage

appendicular

41

anything that is attached to a major part of the body

appendage

42

shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands

upper extremities

43

hips, thighs, legs, ankles, feet

lower extremities

44

consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 that form the face, and 6 in the inner ear

skull

45

made up of 8 flat bones that enclose the brain

cranium

46

means skull

crani

47

forms the forehead

frontal bone

48

two bones that form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium

parietal bones

49

forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium

occipital bone

50

two bones that form the sides and base of the cranium

temporal bones

51

forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit

sphenoid bone

52

bony socket that surrounds and protects the eyeball

orbit

53

forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium

ethmoid bone

54

the six tiny bones of the middle ear

auditory ossicles

55

the opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear, located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull

external auditory meatus

56

external opening of a canal

meatus

57

two bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose

nasal bones

58

two bones that articulate with the frontal bone, also known as the cheekbones

zygomatic bones

59

two bones that form most of the upper jaw

maxillary bones, aka maxillae (sin. maxilla)

60

two bones that form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose

palatine bones

61

two bones that make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye

lacrimal bones

62

two bones that are the thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose

inferior conchae (sin. concha)

63

bone that forms the base for the nasal septum

vomer bone

64

the cartilage wall that divides the two nasal cavities

nasal septum

65

the only movable bone of the skull, attached at the TMJ

mandible, aka jawbone

66

joint where that mandible meets the rest of the skull

temporo-mandibular joint

67

the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs

thoracic cavity, aka rib cage

68

12 pair of bones that attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

ribs, aka costals

69

first seven pairs of ribs, attached anteriorly to the sternum

true ribs

70

three pair of ribs attached anteriorly to cartilage that joins with the sternum

false ribs

71

last two pairs of ribs which are only attached posteriorly

floating ribs

72

forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts

sternum, aka breastbone

73

the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum

manubrium

74

the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum

body of the sternum

75

the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum

xiphoid process

76

the shoulders, supporting the arms and hands

pectoral girdle, aka shoulder girdle

77

means structure that encircles the body

girdle

78

a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula

clavicle, aka collar bone

79

the shoulder blade

scapula (plu. scapulae)

80

an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder

acromion

81

the bone of the upper arm

humerus (plu. humeri)

82

the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm, running up the thumb side of the forearm

radius

83

the larger and longer bone of the forearm, proximal end articulating with the distal end of the humerus to form the elbow joint

ulna

84

a large projection on the upper end of the ulna, forming the point of the elbow and exposes a nerve that tingles when struck

olecranon process, aka funny bone

85

eight bones that form the wrist

carpals

86

the five bones that form the palms of the hand

metacarpals

87

the 14 bones of the fingers, distal, middle, and proximal

phalanges (sin. phalanx)

88

supports the head and body, and protects the spinal cord

spinal column, aka vertebral column

89

a single segment of the spinal column

vertebrae

90

pertaining to the vertebrae

vertebral

91

the solid anterior portion of the vertebrae

body of the vertebra

92

the posterior portion of a vertebra

lamina (plu. laminae)

93

the opening in the middle of the vertebra in which the spinal cord passes through

vertebral foramen

94

the first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck

cervical vertebrae, aka C1-C7

95

pertaining to the neck

cervical

96

the second set of 12 vertebrae, forming the outward curve of the spine

thoracic vertebrae, aka T1-T12

97

pertaining to the thoracic cavity

thoracic

98

the third set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine

lumbar vertebrae

99

means relating to the part of the back and sides between the ribs and pelvis

lumbar

100

the slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back

sacrum

101

forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together

coccyx

102

these separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other, made of cartilage

intervertebral disks

103

this protects the internal organs and supports the lower extremities

pelvic girdle, aka pelvis or hips

104

broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone

ilium

105

the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium

sacroiliac

106

means sacrum

sacr/o

107

means ilium

ili

108

forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bearing the weight of the body when sitting

ischium

109

forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, located just below the urinary bladder

pubis

110

the fused ilium, ischium, and pubis, held securely together by the pubic symphysis

pubic bones

111

the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint

acetabulum, aka hip socket

112

the upper leg bone, and largest bone in body

femur bone, aka thigh bone

113

articulates with the acetabulum

head of femur

114

the narrow area just below the head of the femur

femoral neck

115

pertaining to the femur

femoral

116

the complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg

knees

117

the bony anterior portion of the knee

patella, aka kneecap

118

means referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to the knee joint are located

popliteal

119

these make possible the movements of the knee, shaped like a cross

cruciate ligaments, anterior and posterior

120

the larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg

tibia

121

the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg

fibula

122

the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle

malleolus

123

these are made up of seven short tarsal bones, which form the joint between the lower leg and the foot

ankles

124

the anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula

talus

125

the largest of the tarsal bones

calcaneus, aka heel bone

126

these five bones form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached

metatarsals

127

the bones of the toes

phalanges

128

specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine

chiropractor

129

involves manually adjusting the positions of the bones

manipulative treatment

130

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

orthopedic surgeon, aka orthopedist

131

uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

osteopath, aka DO

132

means bone

oste/o

133

means any bone disease, or medical practice of a DO

osteopathy

134

specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot

podiatrist

135

means foot

pod

136

means specialist

-iatrist

137

the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure

ankylosis

138

means crooked, bent, or stiff

ankyl

139

being capable of movement

mobility

140

stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly

arthrosclerosis

141

means joint

arthr/o

142

an inflammation of a bursa

bursitis

143

means bursa

burs

144

the abnormal softening of cartilage

chondromalacia

145

means cartilage

chondr/o

146

a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells

chondroma

147

an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum

costochondritis

148

blood within a joint

hemarthosis

149

inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint

synovitis

150

the total displacement of a bone from its joint

dislocation, aka luxation

151

the partial displacement of a bone from its joint

subluxation

152

an inflammatory condition of one or more joints

arthritis

153

an obsolete term for arthritis to describe any painful disorder of the joints

rheumatism

154

most commonly associated with aging

osteoarthritis, aka wear-and-tear arthritis

155

a disease characterized by the wearing away of the articular cartilage within the joints

degenerative joint disease

156

means the breaking down or impairment of a body part

degenerative

157

a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function

spondylosis, aka spinal osteoarthritis

158

means vertebrae

spondyl

159

a type of arthritis characterized by deposites of uric acid in the joints

gouty arthritis

160

a byproduct that is normally excreted by the kidneys

uric acid

161

a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked

rheumatoid arthritis, aka RA

162

a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae

ankylosing spondylitis

163

the progressive stiffening of a joint or joints

ankylosing

164

means inflammation of the vertebrae

spondylitis

165

an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less. Symptoms include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, fatigue

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

166

the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots

herniated disk, aka slipped or ruptured disk

167

pain of the lumbar region of the spine

lumbago, aka low back pain

168

the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it

spondylolisthesis

169

means slipping

-listhesis

170

a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spindal cord to protect it

spina bifida

171

pertaining to the spine

spina

172

means split

bifida

173

an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side

kyphosis, aka humpback or dowager's hump

174

means hump

kyph

175

an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine

lordosis, aka swayback

176

means bent backwards

lord

177

an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

scoliosis

178

means curved

scoli

179

a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures

craniostenosis

180

a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue, leading to uneven growth, brittleness, deformity

fibrous dysplasia

181

means pain in a bone

ostealgia, aka osteodynia

182

an inflammation of bone

osteitis, or ostitis

183

an abnormal softening of bones in adults

osteomalacia, aka adult rickets

184

an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone

osteomyelitis

185

the death of bone tissue due to a lack of sufficient blood supply

osteonecrosis

186

a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation

Paget's disease, aka osteitis deformans

187

an inflammation of the periosteum

periostitis

188

a deficiency disease occurring in children, characterized by defective bone growth, resulting from vitamin D deficiency

rickets, aka infantile osteomalacia

189

a condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length

short stature, formerly dwarfism, little people

190

describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus

talipes, aka clubfoot

191

a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone

primary bone cancer

192

a tumor that occurs in the bones of the upper arm, legs, pelvis, or rib. ages 10-20

Ewing's sarcoma

193

describes tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs

secondary bone cancer

194

a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow. can cause pathologic fractures and often fatal

myeloma

195

a benign bony projection covered with cartilage

osteochondroma,

196

something that is not life-threatening and does not recur

benign, or exostosis

197

a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging

osteoporosis

198

means small opening

por

199

thinner than average bone density in a young person

osteopenia

200

means deficiency

-penia

201

occurs when the bone is pressed together on itself

compression fracture, aka vertebral crush fracture

202

fracture occurring at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his hands

Colles' fracture, aka fractured wrist

203

fracture of the hip usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall

osteoporotic hip fracture, aka broken hip

204

a broken bone

fracture

205

fracture in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin

closed fracture, aka simple fracture or complete fracture

206

a fracture in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin

open fracture, aka compound fracture

207

a fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed

comminuted fracture

208

means crushed into small pieces

comminuted

209

a fracture in which the bone is bent and only partially broken

greenstick fracture, or incomplete fracture

210

a fracture that occurs at an angle across the bone

oblique fracture

211

fracture that occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

pathologic fracture

212

a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart

spiral fracture

213

a small fracture in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact

stress fracture

214

a fracture that occurs straight across the bone

transverse fracture

215

forms when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood

fat embolus

216

the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together

crepitation, aka crepitus

217

a bulging deposit around the area of the break formed as the bone heals

callus

218

the use of x-radiation to visualize bone fractures and other abnormalities

radiograph

219

the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint

arthroscopy

220

a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete count test

bone marrow biopsy

221

used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

222

used to determine losses or changes in bone density

bone density testing

223

a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass

ultrasonic bone density testing

224

a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density

dual x-ray absorptiometry

225

used to treat certain types of cancers that affect bone marrow

bone marrow transplant (BMT)

226

uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling

allogenic bone marrow transplant

227

the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and stored before the remaining is destroyed.

autologous bone marrow transplant

228

means originating within an individual

autologous

229

a mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function

orthotic

230

a substitute for a diseased or missing body part

prosthesis (plu. prostheses)

231

the surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint

arthrodesis, aka surgical ankylosis

232

means surgical fixation

-desis

233

the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint

artholysis

234

means loosing or setting free

-lysis

235

a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint

arthroscopic surgery

236

the surgical removal of a bursa

bursectomy

237

the surgical repair of damaged cartilage

chondroplasty

238

the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint

synovectomy

239

means synovial membrane

synov

240

means the surgical repair of a damaged joint, or the surgical placement of an artificial joint

arthroplasty

241

all of the parts of the knee were replaced

total knee replacement (TKR)

242

describes a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced

partial knee replacement (PKR)

243

performed to restore a damaged hip to full function

total hip replacement (THR), aka total hip arthroplasty

244

an alternative to removing the head of the femur

bone-conserving hip resurfacing

245

the replacement of a worn or failed implant

revision surgery

246

performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk

percutaneous diskectomy

247

performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures

percutaneous vertebroplasty

248

the surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra

laminectomy

249

means lamina

lamin

250

a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together (fusing) two or more vertebrae

spinal fusion

251

the surgical removal of a portion of the skull

craniectomy

252

a surgical incision or opening into the skull

craniotomy

253

the surgical repair of the skull

cranioplasty

254

the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity

osteoclasis

255

means to break

-clasis

256

the surgical removal of bone

ostectomy

257

the surgical repair of a bone or bones

osteoplasty

258

the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones

osteorrhaphy

259

a surgical incision or sectioning of a bone

osteotomy

260

an incision through the periosteum to the bone

periosteotomy

261

the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation

closed reduction, aka manipulation

262

the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast

immobilization

263

a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment

traction

264

a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing

external fixation

265

a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

internal fixation, aka open reduction internal fixation