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Flashcards in Med Term 4 Deck (177):
1

the long, slender cells that make up muscles

muscle fibers

2

the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles

fascia (plu. fasciae or fascias)

3

means pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia

myofascial

4

means fascia

fasci

5

a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

tendon

6

muscles attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible

skeletal muscles, aka voluntary, striated

7

muscles located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands

smooth muscle, aka involuntary, unstriated, visceral

8

these form the muscular walls of the heart

myocardial muscles, aka myocardium or cardiac muscles

9

means heart

cardi

10

the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve

muscle innervation

11

means pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle

neuromuscular

12

means muscles

muscul

13

means nerve

neur/o

14

the tightening of a muscle

contraction

15

occurs when a muscle returns to its original form

relaxation

16

the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

abduction

17

to lead

duct

18

means action

-ion

19

the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body

adduction

20

means decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint

flexion

21

means to bend

flex

22

means increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb

extension

23

means to stretch out

tens

24

the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit

hyperextension

25

the act of raising or lifting a body part, such as raising the ribs when breathing in

elevation

26

a muscle that raises a body part

levator

27

a muscle that straightens a limb or joint

extensor

28

a muscle that bends a limb or joint

flexor

29

a muscle that moves a part toward the midline

adductor

30

a muscle that moves a part away from the midline

abductor

31

the act of lowering a body part, such as lowering the ribs when breathing out

depression

32

a muscle that lowers a body part

depressor

33

a circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint

rotation

34

the circular movement of a limb at the far end

circumduction

35

muscle that turns a body part on it's axis

rotator muscle

36

group of muscles and their tendons that hold the head of the humerus securely in place as it rotates within the shoulder joint

rotator cuff

37

the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward

supination

38

the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backwards

pronation

39

the movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle

dorsiflexion

40

the movement that bends the foot downward at the ankle

plantar flexion

41

pertaining to the sole of the foot

plantar

42

the less moveable attachment that is the place where the muscle begins

origin

43

the more moveable attachment that is the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon

insertion

44

means slanted or at an angle

oblique

45

means in straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body

rectus

46

a ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway

sphincter

47

means in a crosswise direction

transverse

48

muscle formed from two divisions, located on the anterior upper arm and flexes the elbow

biceps brachii, aka biceps

49

formed from three divisions and is the muscle of the posterior upper arm that extends the elbow

triceps brachii, aka triceps

50

means two

bi-

51

means three

tri-

52

means head

-ceps

53

the largest muscle of the buttock

gluteus maximus

54

muscle that forms the muscular cap of the shoulder, shaped like an inverted triangle

deltoid muscle

55

muscle group that consists of three separate muscles, located at the back of the upper leg: biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus

hamstring group

56

a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness

exercise physiologist

57

a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function

neurologist

58

a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function

physiatrist

59

a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis

rheumatologist

60

physician that specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles

sports medicine physician

61

the inflammation of a fascia

fasciitis, aka fascitis

62

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms

fibromyalgia syndrome

63

means fibrous connective tissue

fibr/o

64

means condition causing weakness

debilitating

65

pain in a tendon

tenodynia, aka tenalgia

66

means tendon

ten/o, tendon

67

an inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint

tendinitis (tendonitis, tenonitis, tenontitis)

68

a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems, having symptoms similar to fibromyalgia syndrome

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)

69

a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally.

adhesion

70

means weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

atrophy

71

means tenderness or pain in the muscles

myalgia, aka myodynia

72

the herniation (protrusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

myocele

73

means a hernia

-cele

74

the degeneration of muscle tissue

myolysis

75

abnormal softening of muscle tissue

myomalacia

76

the rupture or tearing of a muscle

myorrhexis

77

a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

polymyositis

78

means many

poly-

79

means muscle

myos

80

the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

sarcopenia

81

means flesh

sarc/o

82

means deficiency

-penia

83

the state of balanced muscle tension

muscle tone, aka tonus

84

means lacking normal muscle tone or strength

atonic

85

means without

a-

86

means tone

ton

87

a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

dystonia

88

a condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles

hypertonia

89

a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

hypotonia

90

a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction

myotonia

91

the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement

ataxia

92

means coordination

tax

93

a mild form of ataxia

dystaxia, aka partial ataxia

94

the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues

contracture

95

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

intermittent claudication

96

means limping

claudication

97

means coming and going at intervals

intermittent

98

a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles

spasm

99

a localized muscle spasm named for its cause, such as a heat cramp or writer's cramp

cramp

100

a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side

spasmodic torticollis, aka wryneck

101

extreme slowness in movement

bradykinesia

102

the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm

dyskinesia

103

abnormally increased muscle function or activity

hyperkinesia, aka hyperactivity

104

abnormally decreased muscle function or activity

hypokinesia

105

means slow

brady-

106

means movement

kines

107

the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

myoclonus

108

means violent action

clon

109

the jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

nocturnal myoclonus

110

myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm

singultus, aka hiccups

111

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

myasthenia gravis

112

means weakness or lack of strength

-asthenia

113

latin meaning grave or serious

gravis

114

general term that describes a group of more that 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement

muscular dystrophy, aka muscular dystrophies

115

most common muscular dystrophy, affecting primarily boys between 3-5 and can't walk by 12, needing a respirator

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

116

a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports

repetitive stress disorders, aka repetitive motion disorders

117

involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles

compartment syndrome

118

minor tissue injuries that have not been given the time to heal

overuse injuries

119

inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint

overuse tendinitis, aka overuse tendinosis

120

a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body, caused by the development of trigger points, and produces local and referred muscle pain

myofascial pain syndrome

121

occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint

impingement syndrome

122

an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff

rotator cuff tendinitis, aka tennis shoulder or pitcher's shoulder

123

develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues

ruptured rotator cuff

124

occurs when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen

carpal tunnel syndrom

125

the surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve pressure

carpal tunnel release

126

a harmless fluid filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist

ganglion cyst

127

inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

epicondylitis

128

means on

epi-

129

means condyle

condyl

130

a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis

heel spur

131

an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot

plantar fasciitis

132

an injury to a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament

sprain

133

an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon

strain

134

a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia

shin splint

135

a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee

hamstring injury

136

a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon

Achilles tendinitis

137

an injury causing paralysis in a location determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury

spinal cord injury

138

means the person has some function below the level of the injury, even though it isn't normal

incomplete injury

139

complete loss of sensation and muscle control below the level of the injury

complete injury

140

the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply

paralysis (plu. paralyses)

141

a weakness or slight muscular paralysis

myoparesis

142

slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

hemiparesis

143

total paralysis affecting only one side of the body

hemiplegia

144

means paralysis

-plegia

145

the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

paraplegia

146

paralysis of all four extremities

quadriplegia

147

means four

quadr/i

148

paralysis of heart muscle

cardioplegia, aka cardiac arrest

149

reflexes tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon

deep tendon reflexes (DTR)

150

an involuntary response to a stimulus

reflex

151

a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength

range of motion testing (ROM)

152

a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

electromyography

153

means electricity

electr/o

154

a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle

electroneuromyography, aka nerve conduction studies

155

administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder

antispasmodic, aka anticholingeric

156

administered to relax certain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries

skeletal muscle relaxant

157

a drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles

neuromuscular blocker, aka neuromuscular blocking agent

158

the study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment

ergonomics

159

consists of activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living

occupational therapy

160

activities including bathing, grooming, brushing teeth, eating, and dressing

activities of daily living (ADL)

161

treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise, heat, massage, and other methods to improve circulation, flexibility, and muscle strength

physical therapy

162

a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of certain conditions

myofascial release

163

utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within the muscle tissue

therapeutic ultrasound

164

most common first aid treatment of muscular injuries

RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation)

165

a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure

fasciotomy

166

the surgical repair of fascia

fascioplasty

167

the surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone

tenodesis

168

means to bind or tie together

-desis

169

the release of a tendon from adhesions

tenolysis, aka tendolysis

170

the surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath

tenectomy, aka tenonectomy

171

the surgical repair of a tendon

tenoplasty, aka tendinoplasty

172

the surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon

tenorrhaphy

173

the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle, such as strabismus

tenotomy, aka tendotomy

174

the surgical excision of a portion of a muscle

myectomy

175

the surgical repair of a muscle

myoplasty

176

the surgical suturing of a muscle wound

myorrhaphy

177

the surgical incision into a muscle

myotomy