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Flashcards in Med Term 5 Deck (211):
1

consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood

cardiovascular system

2

means heart

cardi/o

3

means blood vessels

vascul

4

a hollow, muscular organ located between the lungs. A very effective pump that furnishes the power to maintain blood flow throughout the body

heart

5

the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart

pericardium, aka pericardial sac

6

the external layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium

epicardium

7

means upon

epi-

8

the middle and thickest of the heart's three layers and consists of specialized cardiac muscle tissue

myocardium, aka myocardial muscle

9

consists of epithelial tissue and is the inner lining of the heart

endocardium

10

means within

endo-

11

supply oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium

coronary arteries

12

the two upper chambers of the heart. Receive blood, all blood vessels coming into the heart enter here

atria

13

the two lower chambers of the heart. pumping chambers, and all blood vessels leaving the heart emerge from here

ventricles

14

means ventricle

ventricul

15

valve that controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle

tricuspid valve

16

valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

pulmonary semilunar valve

17

valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle

mitral valve, aka bicuspid valve

18

valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta

aortic semilunar valve

19

receives oxygen-poor blood from all tissues, except the lungs, through the superior and inferior venae cavae

right atrium

20

pumps the oxygen-poor blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary artery, which carries it to the lungs

right ventricle

21

receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins, where blood then flows out through the mitral valve, to the left ventricle

left atrium

22

receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium, then out the aortic semilunar valve and into the aorta

left ventricle

23

the flow of blood only between the heart and lungs

pulmonary circulation

24

carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs

pulmonary arteries

25

carry the oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart

pulmonary veins

26

includes the flow of blood to all parts of the body except the lungs

systemic circulation

27

located in the posterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava, establishes basic rhythm and rate of heart beat

sinoatrial node, aka SA node

28

located on the floor of the right atrium near the interatrial septum, and receives impulses from the SA node

atrioventricular node

29

a group of fibers located within the interventricular septum that receive impulses from the AV node, and carry them to ensure the sequence of heart contractions

bundle of His (HISS)

30

specialized conductive fibers located within the walls of the ventricles that relay the electrical impulses to the cells of the ventricles, causing them to contract

Purkinje fibers

31

large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of the body

arteries

32

the largest blood vessel in the body and the main trunk of the arterial system and begins from the left ventricle of the heart

aorta

33

the major arteries that carry blood upward to the head

carotid arteries

34

smaller, thinner branches of arteries that carry blood to the capillaries

arterioles

35

form a low-pressure collecting system to return oxygen-poor blood to the heart

veins

36

the smallest veins that join to form the larger veins

venules

37

the two largest veins in the body

venae cavae

38

the smallest blood vessels in the body, only one epithelial cell in thickness

capillaries

39

the rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart

pulse

40

the measurement of the amount of systolic and diastolic pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries

blood pressure

41

the highest pressure against the walls of an artery, which occurs when the ventricles contract

systolic pressure

42

the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery, which occurs when the ventricles are relaxed

diastolic pressure

43

the fluid tissue in the body

blood

44

a straw-colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones, and waste products.

plasma

45

the clotting proteins found in plasma

fibrinogen and prothrombin

46

plasma fluid after the blood cells and the clotting proteins have been removed

serum

47

mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow

erythrocytes, aka red blood cells

48

the iron-containing pigment of the erythrocytes

hemoglobin

49

the blood cells involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances

leukocytes, aka white blood cells

50

the most common type of WBC, formed in red bone marrow

neutrophils

51

the least common type of WBC, formed in red bone marrow

basophils

52

destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in allergic reactions, formed in red bone marrow and then migrate to tissues throughout the body

eosinophils

53

these identify foreign substances and germs in the body and produce antibodies that specifically target them

lymphocytes

54

provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms through phagocytosis

monocytes

55

the smallest formed elements of the blood

thrombocytes, aka platelets

56

means clot

thromb/o

57

classified according to the presence or absence of certain antigens

blood types

58

four major blood types

A, AB, B, O

59

refers to the presence, or absence of the Rh antigen on red blood cells

Rh factor

60

gases that are normally dissolved in the liquid portion of blood

blood gases

61

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the heart

cardiologist

62

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues

hematologist

63

means blood

hemat, -emia

64

a physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels

vascular surgeon

65

structural abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally before birth

congenital heart defects

66

atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle

coronary artery disease

67

hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries

atherosclerosis

68

a fatty deposit that is similar to the buildup of rust inside a pipe, found within the lumen of an artery

plaque

69

a characteristic of atherosclerosis, and is a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

atheroma

70

a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

ischemic heart disease

71

a condition in which there is an insufficient oxygen supply due to a restricted blood flow by to a part of the body

ischemia

72

means to hold back

isch

73

a condition of episodes of severe chestpain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium

angina

74

the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup

myocardial infarction, aka heart attack

75

occurs most commonly in the elderly, and is a chronic condition in which the heart is unable to pump out all the blood that it receives

heart failure, aka congestive heart failure

76

the abnormal enlargement of the heart that is frequently associated with heart failure when the heart enlarges in an effort to compensate for the loss of its pumping ability

cardiomegaly

77

an inflammation of the heart

carditis

78

means heart

card/o

79

an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

endocarditis

80

means within

endo-

81

an inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream

bacterial endocarditis

82

an inflammation of the myocardium, possibly caused by a viral infection

myocarditis

83

an inflammation of the pericardium that causes an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac

pericarditis

84

the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle

cardiomyopathy

85

an abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels, most often caused by defective heart valves

heart murmur

86

an inflammation of a heart valve

valvulitis

87

means valve

valvul

88

the abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely

valvular prolapse

89

means the falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part

prolapse

90

a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart

valvular stenosis

91

an event in which the heart abruptly stops or develops a very abnormal arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood

cardiac arrest

92

results if treatment is not provided within a few minutes of cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac death

93

describes an abnormality, or the loss of the normal rhythm, of the heartbeat

arrhythmia

94

an abnormally slow resting heart rate, less than 60 bpm

bradycardia

95

an abnormally rapid resting heart rate, greater than 100 bpm

tachycardia

96

a pounding or racing heart with or without irregularity in rhythm

palpitation

97

occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall

atrial fibrillation, aka A fib

98

means fast, uncontrolled heart beat

fibrillation

99

an episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, aka PAT

100

the rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles

ventricular fibrillation, aka V fib

101

a very rapid heart beat that begins within the ventricles

ventricular tachycardia, aka V tach

102

the inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel

angiitis

103

means vessel

angi/o

104

the abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel

angiostenosis

105

a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels

hemangioma

106

a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part

hypoperfusion

107

a form of angiitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time

polyarteritis, aka polyarteritis nodosa

108

refers to disorders of the blood vessels located outside the heart and brain

peripheral vascular disease

109

an example of a peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis

peripheral arterial occlusive disease, aka peripheral artery disease

110

a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress

Raynaud's phenomenon

111

a localized weak spot, or balloon-like enlargement, of the wall of an artery

aneurysm

112

any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls

arteriosclerosis

113

a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves

chronic venous insufficiency, aka venous insufficiency

114

the inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

115

means vein

phleb

116

abnormally swollen veins, usually occurring in the superficial veins of the legs

varicose veins

117

the abnormal condition of having a thrombus

thrombosis

118

means clot

thromb

119

a blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein

thrombus

120

the blocking of an artery by a thrombus

thrombotic occlusion

121

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

coronary thrombosis

122

means crown

coron

123

the condition of having a thrombus attached to the wall of a deep vein

deep vein thrombosis (DVT), aka deep venous thrombosis

124

the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

embolism

125

means something inserted

embol

126

means condition

-ism

127

a foreign object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor that is circulating in the blood

embolus

128

any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood

blood dyscrasia

129

means a mixture or blending

-crasia

130

a genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron

hemochromatosis, aka iron overload disease

131

means color

chromat

132

describes any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal

leukopenia

133

means deficiency

-penia

134

an abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by the bone marrow

polycythemia

135

a systemic condition caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins via the circulating blood

septicemia, aka blood poisoning

136

a condition in which there is an abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood

thrombocytopenia

137

an abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the circulating blood

thrombocytosis

138

the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time

hemorrhage

139

a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match

transfusion reaction

140

a fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body

cholesteral

141

the general term used to describe elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood

hyperlipidemia, aka hyperlipemia

142

means fat

lipid

143

a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow

myelodysplastic syndrome, aka preleukemia

144

a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes

leukemia

145

a lower than normal number of erythrocytes in the blood

anemia

146

without or less than

an-

147

characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

aplastic anemia

148

means without

a-

149

means growth

plast

150

a condition of an inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of them by the spleen

hemolytic anemia

151

means to destroy

-lytic

152

the most common form of aneamia, where blood cannot carry oxygen effectively due to low amounts of iron

iron-deficiency anemia

153

a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal

megaloblastic anemia

154

caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract

pernicious anemia

155

a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape

sickle cell anemia

156

an inherited blood disorder that causes mild or severe anemia due to reduced hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells than normal

thalassemia

157

the elevation of arterial blood pressure to a level that is likely to cause damage to the cardiovascular system

hypertension, aka high blood pressure

158

lower than normal arterial blood pressure

hypotension

159

low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up

orthostatic hypotension, aka postural hypotension

160

a radiographic study of the blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium

angiography

161

a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is passed into a fein or artery and then guided into the heart

cardiac catheterization

162

combines angiography with computerized components to clarify the view of the area of interest by removing the soft tissue and bones from the images

digital subtraction angiography

163

a diagnostic procedure to image the structures of the blood vessels and the flow of blood through the vessels

duplex ultrasound

164

a radiographic test that provides an image of the leg veins after a contrast dye is injected into a vein in the patient's foot

phlebography, aka venography

165

measured in terms of milligrams per deciliter of blood

total cholesterol

166

referred to as bad cholesterol because excess quantities of it contribute to plaque buildup in the arteries

low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL)

167

referred to as good cholesterol because it carries unneeded cholesterol back to the liver for processing and does not contribute to plaque buildup

high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)

168

combinations of fatty acids attached to glycerol that are also found normally in the blood in limited quantities

triglycerides

169

the noninvasive process of recording the electrical activity of the myocardium

electrocardiography

170

means electric

electr/o

171

a record of the electrical activity of the myocardium

electrocardiogram

172

a portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24-hour period

Holter monitor

173

performed to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress (on a treadmill)

stress test

174

performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise

thallium stress test

175

a medication administered to lower blood pressure

antihypertensive

176

blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension

ACE inhibitor

177

reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat

beta-blocker

178

cause the heart and blood vessels to relax by decreasing the movement of calcium into the cells of these structures

calcium channel blocker agents

179

administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium and water

diuretic

180

a medication administered to control irregularities of the heartbeat

antiarrhythmic

181

slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming

anticoagulant

182

may be recommended to reduce the risk of a heart attack or stroke by slightly reducing the ability of the blood to clot

aspirin

183

used to combat hyperlipidemia by reducing the undesirable cholesterol levels in the blood

cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as statins

184

an anticoagulant administered to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger

Coumadin, warfarin

185

strengthens the contraction of the heart muscle, slows the heart rate, and helps eliminate fluid from body tissues

digitalis, aka digoxin

186

dissolves or causes a thrombus to break up

thrombolytic, aka clot-busting drug

187

a thrombolytic that is administered to some patients having a heart attack or stroke

tissue plasminogen activator

188

causes blood vessels to narrow

vasoconstrictor

189

causes blood vessels to expand

vasodilator

190

a vasodilator that is prescribed to prevent or relieve the pain of angina by dilating the blood vessels to the heart

nitroglycerin

191

a procedure in which a small balloon on the end of a catheter is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), aka angioplasty or balloon angioplasty

192

a wire-mesh tube that is commonly placed after the artery has been opened, providing support to the artery wall

stent

193

the condition when an artery that has been opened by angioplasty closes again

restenosis

194

the surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery

atherectomy

195

the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain

carotid endarterectomy

196

a surgery which requires opening the chest, implanting a piece of vein from the leg or chest on the heart to replace a blocked coronary artery and to improve the flow of blood to the heart

coronary artery bypass graft, aka bypass surgery

197

an alternative technique for some bypass patients that is performed with the aid of a fiber optic camera through small openings between the ribs

minimally invasive coronary artery bypass, aka keyhole bypass or buttonhole bypass

198

the use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm

defibrillation, aka carioversion

199

a defibrillator designed for use by nonprofessionals in emergency situations when defib is required

automated external defibrillator (AED)

200

used primarily as treatment for bradycardia or atrial fibrillation, attached externally or implanted under the skin with connections leading to the heart to regulate rhythm

artificial pacemaker

201

a double-action pacemaker, regulating rhythm, and defibrillates if a dangerous disruption occurs

implantable cardioverter defibrillator

202

the surgical repair or replacement of a heart valve

valvoplasty, aka valvuloplasty

203

means valve

valv/o

204

an emergency procedure for life support consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac compression

cardiopulmonary resuscitation, aka CPR

205

the surgical removal of an aneurysm

aneurysmectomy

206

aneurysm

aneurysm/o

207

the surgical suturing of an aneurysm

aneurysmorrhaphy

208

the surgical removal of part of an artery

arteriectomy

209

to stop or control bleeding

hemostasis

210

means stopping or controlling

-stasis

211

the removal of whole blood from the body and separation of the blood's cellular elements

plasmapheresis