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Flashcards in Med Term 6 Deck (191):
1

specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity, such as allergic reactions

allergist

2

specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system

immunologist

3

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer

oncologist

4

means protected

immun/o

5

means tumor

onc/o

6

specialized structures of the lymphatic system contained in the villi of the small intestine, along with blood vessels

lacteals

7

transports lymph from tissues throughout the body and eventually returns this fluid to the venous circulation

lymphatic circulation

8

clear, watery fluid that transports wast products and proteins out of the spaces between the cells of the body tissues. Also destroys bacteria or other pathogens in the tissues

lymph

9

plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the capillaries and into the spaces between the cells.

interstitial fluid, aka intercellular or tissue fluid

10

microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body, only 1 cell in thickness

lymphatic capillaries

11

progressively larger vessels that are located deeper within the tissues from the capillaries

lymphatic vessels

12

collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body and the right arm

right lymphatic duct

13

the largest lymphatic vessel in the body, collects lymph from the left side of the head and neck, the upper left quadrant of the trunk, the left arm, and the entire lower portion of the trunk and both legs

thoracic duct

14

bean-shaped capsule that contains specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens

lymph node

15

lymph nodes located along the sides of the neck

cervical lymph nodes

16

lymph nodes located under the arms in the area known as the armpits

axillary lymph nodes

17

means armpit

axill/o

18

lymph nodes located in the inguinal (groin) area of the lower abdomen

inguinal lymph nodes

19

means groin

inguin/o

20

three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and the upper throat

tonsils

21

tonsils located in the nasopharynx

adenoids, aka nasopharyngeal tonsils

22

tonsils located on the left and right sides of the throat in the area that is visible through the mouth

palatine tonsils

23

tonsils located at the base of the tongue

lingual tonsils

24

an endocrine gland that assists the immune system, primarily made of lymphoid tissue, located superior to the heart

thymus

25

structure consisting of lymphoid tissue that works with the immune system to protect against the entry of pathogens through the digestive system, located on the walls of the ileum

Peyer's patches

26

structure consisting of lymphoid tissue that works with the immune system to protect against the entry of pathogens through the digestive system, hanging from the lower portion of the cecum

vermiform appendix

27

first section of the large intestine

cecum

28

a saclike mass of lymphoid tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, just inferior to the diaphragm and posterior to the stomach

spleen

29

function of destroying worn-out red blood cells

hemolytic

30

an inflammation of the lymph nodes

lymphadenitis, aka swollen glands

31

means lymph nodes

lymphaden/o

32

any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes

lymphadenopathy

33

a benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system

lymphangioma

34

means lymph vessel

lymphangi/o

35

an abnormal enlargement of the spleen

splenomegaly

36

means spleen

splen/o

37

bleeding from the spleen

splenorrhagia

38

a diagnostic test that is performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels

lymphoscintigraphy

39

swelling due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues

lymphedema

40

means lymph

lymph/o

41

means swelling

-edema

42

a hereditary disorder due to malformation of the lymphatic system, produces swelling in the feet and legs

primary lymphedema

43

caused by damage to the lymphatic system that most commonly produces swelling in the limb nearest to the damaged lymphatic vessels

secondary lymphedema

44

wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body

intact skin

45

traps breathed-in foreign matter with nose hairs and the moist mucous membrane lining

respiratory system

46

uses the acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food

digestive system

47

works together with specialized white blood cells in specific ways to attack and destroy pathogens that have succeeded in entering the body

lymphatic system

48

a reaction involving binding antigens to antibodies, labeling potentially dangerous antigens so it can be recognized and destroyed by other cells of the immune system

antigen-antibody reaction

49

any substance that the body regards as being foreign, and includes viruses, bacteria, toxins, and transplanted tissues

antigen

50

a substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual

allergen

51

a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen

antibody

52

means against

anti-

53

bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response, created by plasma cells

immunoglobulins, aka antibodies

54

specialized white blood cells that produce antibodies coded o destroy specific antigens

plasma cells

55

white blood cells that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells and undergo further maturation and differentiation in lymphoid tissues throughout the body

lymphocytes

56

specialized lymphocytes that produce and secrete antibodies, most effective against viruses and bacteria in blood

B cells, aka B lymphocytes

57

specialized white blood cells that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections. phagocytes

dendritic cells

58

small lymphocytes that mature in the thymus as a result of exposure to the hormone thymosin. they coordinate immune defenses and kill infected cells on contact

T cells, aka T lymphocytes

59

a family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication

interferon

60

direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system, produced by the T cells

lymphokines

61

a type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills invading cells, also remove dead cells and stimulate the action of other immune cells

macrophage

62

means large

macro-

63

means cell that eats

-phage

64

a large white blood cell that can destroy substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens by the process of phagocytosis

phagocyte

65

means to eat or swallow

phag/o

66

a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form and are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria

complement

67

the state of being resistant to a specific disease

immunity

68

occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader

allergic reaction

69

an overreaction by the body to a particular antigen

allergy, aka hypersensitivity

70

includes redness, itching, and burning where the skin has come into contact with an allergen

localized allergic response, aka cellular response

71

a severe response to an allergen, potentially fatal

systemic reaction, aka anaphylaxis

72

a diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens such as tree pollen and ragweed

scratch test

73

medications administered to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever, which is a common allergy to wind-borne pollens, and other type of allergies

antihistamines

74

any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues

autoimmune disorder, aka autoimmune disease

75

occurs when the immune response in compromised

immunodeficiency disorder

76

a bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

77

caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans

opportunistic infection

78

the most advanced and fatal stage of HIV

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

79

an example of an opportunistic infection that is frequently associated with HIV, a cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, mouth, nose, throat, organs

Kaposi's sarcoma

80

a blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies

ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

81

a blood test that produces more accurate results than the ELISA test, used when ELISA is positive

Western blot test

82

a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response

immunotherapy

83

means immune

immun/o

84

means treatment

-therapy

85

used as a postexposure preventive measure against certain viruses, including rabies and some types of hepatitis

synthetic immunoglobulins

86

used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, hep C, and some cancers

synthetic interferon

87

any of a class of antibodies produced in the lab by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells, used to enhance the patient's immune response to certain malignancies

monoclonal antibodies

88

treatment to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens

immunosuppression

89

a substance that prevents or reduces the body's normal immune response, to prevent rejection of donor tissue

immunosuppressant

90

a hormone-like preparation administered primarily as an anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant

corticosteroid drug

91

a medication that kills or damages cells

cytotoxic drug

92

means poison

tox

93

a microorganism that causes a disease in humans

pathogen

94

one-celled microscopic organisms

bacteria

95

rod-shaped spore forming bacteria

bacilli

96

a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, and mites

rickettsia

97

transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

98

spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement

spirochetes

99

caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by deer ticks

Lyme disease

100

a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes

staphylococci

101

a form of staphylococci that commonly infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or food poisoning

staphylococcus aureus

102

bacteria that form a chain

streptococci

103

a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body

septic shock

104

develop when an antibiotic fails to kill all of the bacteria it targets

antibiotic resistant bacteria, aka superbugs

105

bacteria resistant to most antibiotics

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA

106

a simple parasitic organism

fungus

107

a fungal infection that commonly develops between the toes and on the feet

Tinea pedis

108

a type of fungus

yeast

109

known as a yeast infection

candidiasis

110

a plant or animal that lives on, or within, another living organism at the expense of that organism

parasite

111

a disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitos that is transferred to humans by mosquito bites

malaria

112

most commonly transmitted from animal feces to humans

toxoplasmosis

113

very small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells

viruses

114

an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve

Herpes zoster, aka shingles

115

caused by the Epsein-Barr virus

infectious mononucleosis

116

an acute, highly contagious infection caused by the rubeola virus and transmitted by respiratory droplets

measles

117

an acute viral disease characterized by the swelling of the parotid glands

mumps

118

a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, pink rash

rubella, aka german measles or 3-day measles

119

prevents measles, mumps, and rubella

measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR)

120

an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal

rabies

121

caused by the herpes virus Varicella zoster and is highly contagious

Varicella, aka chickenpox

122

spread to humans by mosquito bites, flu-like, may spread to spinal cord and brain

West Nile virus

123

a member of the herpesvirus family that cause a variety of diseases

cytomegalovirus

124

medications that are capable of inhibiting growth, or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms

antibiotics

125

means life

bio

126

means against

anti-

127

means bacteria

bacteri

128

means causing death

-cide

129

means causing control

-static

130

an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi

antifungal

131

means fungus

fung

132

used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity

antiviral drug

133

the study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer

oncology

134

a growth of tissue that forms an abnormal mass

tumor, aka neoplasm

135

means new or strange

neo-

136

a noncancerous growth

benign tumor

137

a benign tumor made up of muscle tissue

myoma

138

harmful, capable of spreading to distant body sites including other body systems, can become progressively worse, and life-threatening

malignant tumor

139

malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue

myosarcoma

140

means flesh

sarc/o

141

the process through which the tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply

angiogenesis

142

means vessel

angi/o

143

means reproduction

-genesis

144

a class of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by invasion through direct growth or by metastasizing

cancer

145

the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another

metastasize

146

a new cancer site that results from the spreading process

metastasis

147

means beyond

meta-

148

means stopping

-stasis

149

a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue

carcinoma

150

means cancer

carcin

151

describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues

carcinoma in situ

152

any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue

adenocarcinoma

153

a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues, and liquid tissues

sarcoma

154

a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee

osteosarcoma

155

a malignant tumor of the tissue surrounding a synovial joint

synovial sarcoma

156

sarcoma that affects the blood

leukemia

157

the process of classifying tumors with respect to haw far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy, and the patient's prognosis

staging

158

a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues

lymphoma

159

distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkin's lymphoma

160

term used to describe all other lymphomas

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

161

a carcinoma that develops from the cells of the breast and can spread to adjacent lymph nodes and other body sites

breast cancer

162

breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct

ductal carcinoma in situ

163

starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall, and invades the fatty breast tissue

infiltrating ductal carcinoma

164

cancer that starts in the milk glands, breaks through, and invades the fatty tissue

infiltrating lobular carcinoma

165

the most aggressive and least common form of breast cancer

inflammatory breast cancer

166

can occur in the small amount of breast tissue that is normally present in men

male breast cancer

167

an essential self-care procedure for the early detection of breast cancer

breast self-examination

168

performed to feel the texture, size, and consistency of the breast

professional palpation of the breast

169

a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells

mammography

170

means breast

mammo/o

171

the removal of a small piece of tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis

surgical biopsy

172

means pertaining to life

bi-

173

means view of

-opsy

174

a technique in which an x-ray guided needle is used to remove small samples of tissue from the breast

needle breast biopsy

175

after the sentinel lymph node has been identifies, only this and the other affected nodes are removed for biopsy

sentinel-node biopsy

176

a surgical procedure in which all of the lymph nodes in a major group are removed to determine or slow the spread of cancer

lymph node dissection

177

the surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and surrounding margin of normal tissue

lumpectomy

178

the surgical removal of the entire breast and nipple

mastectomy

179

means breast

mast

180

the surgical removal of the entire breast and all of the axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm

modified radical mastectomy

181

the surgical removal of an entire breast and many of the surrounding tissues

radical mastectomy

182

the use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to destroy malignant cells and tissues

chemotherapy

183

the use of natural or synthetic substances such as drugs, vitamins to reduce the risk of developing cancer, or that chance that it will recur

chemoprevention

184

medication that blocks the development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells

antineoplastic

185

used in the treatment of some cancers, with the goal of destroying the cancer while sparing healthy tissues

radiation therapy

186

the use of radioactive materials in contact with, or implanted into, the tissues to be treated

brachytherapy

187

means short

brachy-

188

radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body

teletherapy

189

used after the primary treatments have been completed to decrease the chance that a cancer will recur

adjuvant therapy

190

a developing form of anti-cancer drug therapy that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells

targeted therapy

191

Done

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